aka obesity hyperventilation syndrome; obese individuals tend to have problems breathing leading to decreased O2 and increased CO2 even in the face of actual hyperventilation
What is Pickwickian syndrome?
Better to auscultate at the sternum because there is more sternal contact with the heart and you are able to hear arrhythmias
What is the appropriate place to auscultate a cat?
closure of valves; normal in every animal
What do S1 and S2 heart sounds represent? In what patients can they be heard?
turbulent fill of the ventricles; heart disease patients
What do S3 and S4 heart sounds represent? In what patients can they be heard?
Eyes and a lot of the brain get blood from maxillary artery; this comes very close to the angular process of the mandible. Cortical blindness can occur if the artery is occluded for too long by the mouth being held open under tension
Why can't you use spring-loaded specula in cats during dentals?
doppler devices; it is closer to MAP than SAP
What monitoring equipment is less accurate in cats, and what values does it produce?
no special risk
What is a potential complication with the use of propofol as an induction agent in the cat?
hemolysis and heinz body anemia have been reported, but are not clinically relevant
What is a potential complication with the use of propofol chronically in the cat?
propofol, etomidate, diazepam
What are anesthetics that have been known to cause hemolysis and heinz body anemia in cats when used chronically or in high doses?
poor lung sounds; poor oxygenation, not staying asleep, removing the tube
What is the best way to identify a mucus plug in a feline ET tube? Other methods?
lidocaine; 30-45 seconds
What is commonly used to desensitize the arytenoids in cats prior to intubation? How long does this take to have an effect?
administer muscle relaxants
In the event of a laryngospasm in a cat, what can be done to stop it once it has begun?
10 mmH2O; their lungs are more compliant and you get the same tidal volume with lower pressure
What is the max pressure you should provide on manual respiration in a cat? Why?
in cats the spinal cord extends past the L7/S1 space, more likely that you will inject into the subarachnoid space in the cat on epidural, which is a smaller cavity and will overdose the animal if you give the same amount you intended to use in the epidural space. This has a huge likelihood of causing cranial migration and CNS toxicity
What is the difference in the extent of the spinal cord in dogs and cats? How does this affect epidural administration?
the brain has adapted to higher pressures over time, so providing "normal" BP values under anesthesia is equivalently hypotension to that animal
What is the issue with monitoring BP in a cat with chronic hypertension in regard to cerebral autoregulation?
cats have fewer nephrons, so even small bouts of hypotension can result in kidney disease
What is the issue with monitoring BP in a cat with chronic hypertension in regard to the kidney?
diazepam, ketamine, NSAIDS, sevoflurane
What are drugs that should be used with caution in cats with kidney disease?