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Astro Phelps Midterm
Terms in this set (56)
Our solar system consists of
the Sun and all the objects that orbit it
Sound travels at a speed of 300 meters per second. In analogy to the light-year, what does 1 sound-minute equal?
The distance traveled by sound in 1 minute
If our sun is expected to last about 6 billion years longer, then turn to be a planetary nebula for several thousand years, about how much of the rest of its life will our sun be a planetary nebula?
Compared to planetary nebulae, supernovae are
much. much rarer
Does it make sense to talk about stars that form earlier and stars that form later as "generations" of stars? In what way?
Sort of. Stars in the early universe changed the matter that later stars can be made of.
The number of stars in our galaxy is ___________ the number of galaxies in the observable universe.
about the same as
Arrange the following items according to size, from the smallest to the largest
Earth, Sun, giant star, solar system, galaxy, universe
In the northern hemisphere, the stars rise in the East, set in the West and spin counter-clockwise around the North celestial pole. In the southern hemisphere the stars rise in the
stars rise in the east and set in the west and spin clockwise around the south celestial pole
Imagine a planet whose spin axis is perpendicular to its orbital plane- describe its seasons
constant through the year
A friend claims that a few months ago she saw the full moon overhead at noon, Is this possible
No, the full moon happens when the lit side of the moon faces the Earth, meaning only the night side of the Earth can see it.
A person on Earth sees a total solar eclipse. What would someone else standing on the side of the moon facing the Earth see at this time? The Earth's
day side, with a dark spot that moves across it
which situation does not describe an acceleration?
a car traveling with constant speed on a straight road.
Consider lifting a ball straight up into the air at a constant speed. There are two forces acting on the ball: gravity and the push from your hand. Which force is larger?
The two forces are the same
Two identical spacecrafts are accelerated by rocket engines. The second spacecraft has twice as much mass as the first. Which has a higher acceleration?
The first spacecraft: it has less mass.
Why is it more dangerous to put your hand in boiling water (212 F) than in a hot oven (350 F)?
Water; it's denser so it has more thermal energy
Consider swinging on a swing. How do kinetic energy (KE) and gravitational potential energy (GPE) change as you swing?
GPE is maximum at the top of the arc, while KE is maximum at the bottom of the arc.
depends on how high up you are
depends on how fast you're going
When 2 bodies fall, which hits the ground first?
Neither, they hit at the same time
A shopper pushes two shopping carts, a heavy one and a light one. If she gives both just the same acceleration, you know that. . .
she applied a greater force to the light cart
When we dropped a ball and a truck, which felt a larger force from gravity?
the truck since it's more massive
Why doesn't the moon crash into the Earth?
The Moon is moving fast enough to avoid hitting the Earth.
Io orbits Jupiter at about the same distance that Titania orbits Uranus. However, Io takes 1.7 day to orbit while Titania takes 8.7 days. What does this tell us?
Jupiter has more mass than Uranus
Which describes what happens to kinetic and total orbit energy of a planet during an orbit?
KE= maximum when moving fastest
-> closest to the sun
Total orbital energy is
the sum of the kinetic and GPE of an orbit
Which describes what happens to gravitational energy of a planet during an orbit?
GPE= Max when farthest distance to fall-> farthest from sun
Which describes what happens total orbital energy of a planet during an orbit?
Total energy conserved: transfers back and forth between KE and GPE
KE max when GPE min and vice versa
implies orbits don't change unless energy changes
A comet is captured into a closer orbit around the Sun bc of an encounter with Jupiter. What does this do to the orbit of Jupiter
Jupiter get's farther from the Sun bc Jupiter gains the orbit energy that the comet loses.
At what phases of the moon will the Earth experience a spring tide?
Full and new
caused by the fact that different parts of the Earth feel different gravitational pulls from the Moon. These different pulls try to stretch the Earth out.
Which of the following would you have to change to turn lead into a different chemical element?
The number of protons
If you heat a ______, you will get a ______. If you heat it further, you will get a ______.
Solid, liquid, gas
Consider a helium balloon and all of its contents. As it is inflated, what happens to its mass, its volume, and its density?
Mass increases. Volume increases. Density decreases
What makes radio waves different from visible light?
Radio waves have lower energy
Why does a red shirt look red?
The red shirt reflects red light and absorbs other colors.
When something is red hot, it is hotter than something that is:
Spectral lines tell you about the composition of an object. What other info also gives clues on composition?
path the sun follows
combination of daily and annual motion; Earth's tilt= equator doesn't match orbit plane
how does the sun affect Earth's seasons?
Angle of the sun's light; low= energy is spread out more
farthest point from sun (after summer solstice)
closest point to sun (after winter solstice)
equal day and night
balance between gravity and speed
how much mass is in the center pulling
average distance and time period
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