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GEOS 101 Midterm
Terms in this set (26)
1. What features are associated with Divergent Plate Boundaries? Where do these occur?
Creation of new crusts. Creation of new oceans. Volcanoes. Shallow Earthquakes.
1. What features are associated with Convergent Plate Boundaries? Where do these occur?
Destruction of oceanic crusts. Explosive volcanoes. Mountain ranges. Shallow to Deep Earthquakes
1. What features are associated with Transform Plate Boundaries? Where do these occur?
What are the layers of Earth? Which occupies the most volume? How do we know?
Oceanic (5-10Km) and Continental Crust (20-60km), Mantel (2900km), Outer Core (liquid), Inner Core (solid)
1. What are the most abundant elements in Earth's Crust?
1. What is the definition of a mineral?
Naturally occurring crystalline solids, generally in organic. Made up of elements.
1. Which mineral is most abundant in the Earth's Crust? In the Earth's Mantle?
Crust: Feldspar Mantle: Olivine
1. How do you melt rocks? (How do magmas form?)
Heat and Pressure
What type of minerals crystallize out of magma first? Last? How is this related to their color?
What distinguishes the 3 types of volcanoes?
Lava type and volcano shapes eruption intensity
How can you determine if a rock cooled slowly or quickly?
How is Bowen's reaction series used to determine silica content and melting temperature?
Minerals with high silica temps are the first to crystalize
1. What are the main types of weathering?
Mechanical (breaking of rocks into smaller pieces) Chemical (chemical decomposition and transformation of rock into new compounds)
1. What processes does material go through before it becomes a sedimentary rock?
Weathering, Erosion, Deposition, Sedimentation
1. What are the types of sedimentary rocks?
Clastic and Chemical
What are the different types of metamorphic environments?
Regional (Heat and Pressure), Impact (meteors), Hydrothermal (Magma and Water) Fault Zone, Contact (Magma)
1. What are the types of metamorphic rocks?
What are the different types of mass wasting, and what are the features of each type?
Creep, Falls, Slides, Slumps, Flows, Subsidence, Dissolution (Karst)
1. What role does water play in slope stability?
In small amounts, it increases stability by making sediment stick. In large amounts, it reduces stability by removing friction
What are the mitigation methods for mass wasting events?
Geotextile fabric, rock bolts, shotcrete, vegetation, dewatering, increasing load at toe, netting
1. What is an unconformity? What are the 3 main types?
Gaps in the rock record created by erosion and lack of sedimentation.
Angular unconformity: titled rock covered by horizontal rock
Disconformity: a gap in the rock record between two horizontal sedimentary layers
Nonconformity: a gap in the rock record with igneous or metamorphic rock covered by sedimentary layers
What are the main relative dating methods?
Superposition, Original Horizontality, Cross-Cutting, Inclusions, continuity, Faunal Succession
1. What defines the changes in the Geologic Time Scale?
What are some of the important tectonic events of the Cenozoic?
Pangea breaks up
The lithosphere consists of
both types of crust and the uppermost mantle
A region generally is higher than an adjacent region if ____________ than in the adjacent region.
he crust is thicker