Chapter 12, 13, and 23 Study Guide APES
Terms in this set (44)
What is the SLOSS dilemma? What is the controversy associated with it?
single large or several small-concerned with preservation and preventing habitat fragmentation;
debate as to whether single large or several small reserves are a superior means of conserving biodiversity in a fragmented habitat
In the United States, most logging takes place where?
conifer forests in the west and pine plantations in the south
Why do developing nations impose few or no restrictions on logging?
they are desperate for economic development and foreign capital
Where does the most commercial logging today take place?
Canada, Russia, Brazil
What happened in the UN FAO's Global Forest Resources Assessment of 2010? What was concluded from the assessment?
deforestation has slowed, but we still lose forests at the rate of 5.2 million ha/yr
Ecosystem-based timber harvesting uses which methods? What are the consequences of ecosystem-based timber harvesting?
leave seed-producing or mature trees uncut to provide for future forests;
leaves old growth, more time to mature, sustainable
What is the National Forest Management Act? What does it do for national forests?
passed in 1976 with the intent to ensure multiple use and sustainable yield of national forest land
What is the Healthy Forests Restoration Act? What does it do for national forests?
timber companies are allowed to cut down economically valuable medium and large trees in 71% of the total area of the national forests in return for clearing away smaller, more fire prone trees and underbrush;
direct timber harvesting
What are paper parks?
areas protected on paper but not in reality
According to the book, salvage logging has what consequences?
removing timber from recently burned land can also cause erosion and soil damage, may impede forest regeneration and promote further wildfires
The area effect of the equilibrium theory of biogeography suggests what?
the number of species increases with the size of the island. All else being equal, larger islands contain more species.
How are controlled burns used in forest conservation and preservation?
clear away fuel loads, nourish the soil with ash, encourage the vigorous growth of new vegetation
What is the Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation (REED) program?
gives wealthy nations carbon-offsets if they pay poorer nations to conserve forests
What is the edge effect? What is the biggest contributing factor? How does it affect species?
an impact on organisms, populations, or communities that results because conditions along the edge of a habitat fragment differ from conditions on the interior;
more vulnerable to parasites, predators, and human actions
What does Curitiba, Brazil, show us?
a walkable city center decreases congestion, and a bus system decreases traffic
What is a UGB? How does Oregon implement it? How were voters affected in 2004 to 2007 by the UGB?
urban growth boundary;
limit sprawl by containing growth largely within existing urbanized areas;
passed a bill that let property owners ignore
How have American cities in the northern United States changed in recent years?
Around the world, the fastest growing cities today are mostly found where?
Over the past 50 years, the movement trend for most US citizens has been from urban cities to where?
When considering the true cost of sprawl, what all needs to be considered in planning?
cost of fossil fuels
If you are moving from near the center of a large city into the suburbs, what are some considerations that should be included in your decision?
easier to have a place for a vegetable garden
what should a city planner consider? What should be the very first consideration?
optimal land use strategies for areas in the city
What is an urban growth boundary intended to do?
separate areas desired to be urban from areas desired to remain rural
What is new urbanism? What is new urbanism trying to do?
a school of thought among architects, planners, and developers that seeks to design neighborhoods in which homes, businesses, schools, and other amenities are within walking distance of one another;
create functional neighborhoods in which families can meet most of their needs close to home without the use of a car;
reduce sprawl while promoting urbanization
What methods should city and state governments use to improve urban transportation?
carpool lanes and parking spots, public transportation
What is a resource sink?
place that has to import from source areas beyond their borders nearly everything they need to feed, clothe, and house their inhabitants
What is a LEED-certified building? What should a LEED-certified building include?
energy efficient, sustainable materials, reduce ecological footprint, limit pollution, recycle waste
What does smelting of iron ore involve?
heating ore beyond its melting point and combining it with other metals or chemicals
Most coltan ore is mined where? How is it purified? Where is the majority of it purified and sold?
marketed to North America and Europe
What was the focus of the 2001 enquiry of the UN General Assembly into coltan mining in Congo? What was the result of the enquiry?
environmental and social justice for local people
Tantalum from African coltan is used primarily for the manufacture of what?
electronics: cell phones, computers, digital cameras
Heavy landscape damage and water pollution have occurred where? And to what is the damage due?
mountaintop removal mining for coal
What is the US Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act of 1977? What are the requirements of the act?
mandates efforts to reclaim mining sites after use, requiring countries to post bonds to cover reclamation costs before mining can be approved
What is the US General Mining Act of 1872? How does it encourage domestic mining? What are the positive effects of the bill? What are the negative effects of the bill?
legalized and promoted mining by private individuals on public lands for just $5 per acre, subject to local customs with no government oversight;
promotes local economy;
subject to fraudulent claims
How can the dwindling supplies of rare strategic metals such as indium, tantalum, and platinum be extended?
In 2010, where did geologists from the US military discover nearly $1 trillion worth of materials?
In 2010, Metro Portland made a historic agreement between which two groups? What was the benefit of the agreement?
landowners and citizens;
included a regional plan to identify exactly where urban growth would be allowed
What can we do to create sustainable mineral use and longer projected lifetimes for scarce materials?
lol i dunno
What is the relationship between recycling, economics, and energy consumption that is demonstrated in the case of aluminum?
95% of the energy expended to mine and produce items from virgin ore is saved by recycling
The newest bonanza for recycling scarce and toxic metals is to recover them from what?
What are the traditional reasons for the development of parks and protected areas? What other reasons have been added recently?
The traditional reasons for the development of parks and protected areas are wilderness protection, protection of cultural features, tourism and recreation, and sustainable use of resources. Preservation of species and genetic diversity have been added recently.
Briefly discuss the components of a sustainable forestry program and the meaning of FSC certified forest products.
Forest Stewardship Council (FSC) examines and certifies products based on whether they have been harvested using sustainable practices.
Explain at least three of the principles of smart growth.
Smart growth is intended to promote healthy neighborhoods and communities, jobs and economic development, transportation options, and environmental quality. Also, it aims to rejuvenate older existing communities that so often are drained and impoverished by sprawl. Finally, smart growth focuses on building up, not out; it focuses development and economic investment in existing urban centers and favors multi-story shop-houses and high-rises.
What are some of the reasons for the development of parks and protected areas in and around US cities?
People desire some sense of escape from the noise, commotion, and stress of urban life. Parks proved greenery, scenic beauty, freedom of movement, and recreation. They also keep ecological processes functioning by regulating climate, producing oxygen, filtering air and water pollutants, and providing habitats for wildlife.