27 terms

Urban Environments [IGCSE]

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Terms in this set (...)

Accessibility
The degree of , The degree of ease with which it is possible to reach a certain location from other locations; the degree if ease with which it is possible for people to obtain goods and services, such as housing and healthcare.
Brownfield Site
disused and derelict land in an urban area that is available for redevelopment.
Congestion
Acute overcrowding caused by high densities of traffic, businesses and people.
Counter-urbanisation
The movement of population and economic activity away from urban areas to new towns, estates or a commuter town or village in the suburbs of the city as well as to rural areas.
Deprivation
When people lack what the rest of society considers 'normal' suchas good housing, reasonable incomes or access to healthcare.
Environmental Quality
The degree to which an area is free from air, water, noise and visual pollution
Ethnic group
A group of people sharing the same characteristics of race, nationality, language or religion.
Greenfield site
A plot of land, often in a rural or on the edge of an urban area
that has not yet been subject to any building development.
Inner city
The part of the built-up area and close to the CBD, often characterised by old housing, poor services and brownfield sites.
Land use
What types of buildings / economic activities exist in an area suchas residential, retail or industrial.
Land value
The market value of a piece of land; what businesses or
individuals are prepared to pay for it (or rent it).
Mega‐city
A city with a population exceeding 10 million.
Planner
A decision maker whose job it is to decide how to use land e.g.
where to build roads, or houses. Planners often decide to conserve areas such as Greenfield sites by not allowing development.
Poverty
A condition where people are lacking in resources such as income, food, housing, basic services (clean water and sewage disposal) and access to education and healthcare.
Retail complex
A purpose built area for shopping (and often leisure), such as an out of town shopping centre or retail park.
Self‐help (housing)
When people in shanty towns / squatter settlements gradually
improving their own housing and surroundings. Often they are helped by an NGO.
Shanty town
An area of slum makeshift and unsanitary housing, often occupied by squatters (no legal right to occupy). The houses are built with salvaged material and the area is built on hazardous grounds that were neglected by development
Social deprivation
The degree to which an individual or an area is deprived of
services, decent housing, adequate income and local employment.
Socio‐economic group
A group of people distinguished by employment, income and
social characteristics such as education and family status.
Social segregation
The clustering together of people with similar characteristics class, wealth, ethnicity) into separate residential areas
Squatter Community
Similar to shanty towns where people with no legal right to the area live
Suburbanisation
The spread of low density, often detached or semidetached, housing around the edges of a city or town.
Urbanisation
The process of becoming more urban, mainly through more and more people living in towns and cities.
Urban Managers
People who make decisions that affect urban areas, these include people such as planners, politicians and developers
Urban regeneration
The redevelopment of formerly run-down urban areas, often in the inner city through improvements to the environment, housing and employment opportunities
Urban re-imaging
changing the image of an urban area and the way people view it
What is the Burgess model?
Shows how land use and environmental quality changes as you move out from the CBD.
Four rings.
1) CBD - High-value retail, restaurants
2) Inner city - terraced housing, lower environmental quality
3) Outer city/suburbs - More green space, environmental quality improves
4) Rural-urban fringe - Detached housing, open space.