51 terms

PSYC 1 Chapter 7 Language & Thought

A system for communicating with others using signals that convey meaning and are combined according to rules of grammar
The smallest unit of sound that is recognizable as speech rather than as random noise.
Phonological Rules
A set of rules that indicate how phonemes can be combined to produce speech sounds.
The smallest meaningful units of language.
A set of rules that specify how the units of language can be combined to produced meaningful messages.
Morphological Rules
A set of rules that indicate how morphemes can be combined to form phrases and sentences.
Syntactical Rules
A set of rules that indicate how words can be combined to form phrases and sentences.
Deep Structure
The meaning of a sentence.
Semantic refers to meaning.
Surface Structure
How a sentence is worded.
Fast Mapping
The fact that children can map a word onto an underlying concept after only a single exposure.
Telegraphic Speech
Speech that is devoid of function morphemes and consists mostly of content words.
Nativist Theory
The view that language development is best explained as an innate, biological capacity.
Language Acquisition Device LAD
A collection of processes that facilitate language learning.
Noam Chompsky
Genetic Dysphasia
A syndrome characterized by an inability to learn the grammatical structure of language despite having otherwise normal intelligence.
Difficulty in producing or comprehending language.
Linguist Relativity Hypothesis
The proposal that language shapes the nature of thought.
An abstract mental representation that groups or categorizes shared features of related object, events, or other stimuli.
Category-Specific Deficit
A neurological syndrome that is characterized by an inability to recognize objects that belong to a particular category while leaving the ability to recognize objects outside the category undisturbed.
Family Resemblance Theory
Members of a category have features that appear to be characteristic of category members but may not be possessed by every member.
The "best" or "most typical member" of a category.
Exemplar Theory
A theory of categorization that argues that we make category judgments by comparing a new instance with stored memories for other instances of the category.
Rational Choice Theory
The classical view that we make decisions by determining how likely something is to happen, judging the value of the outcome, and then multiplying the two.
Availability Bias
Items that are more readily available in memory are judged as having occurred more frequently.
A fast and efficient strategy that may facilitate decision making but does not guarantee that a solution will be reached
A well defined sequence of procedures or rules that guarantees a solution to a problem.
Representativeness Heuristic
A mental shortcut that involves making a probability judgment by comparing an object or event to a prototype of the object or event.
Sunk-Cost Fallacy
A framing effect in which people make decision about a current situation based on what they have previously invested in the situation.
Conjunction Fallacy
When people think that two events are more likely to occur together than either individual event.
Prospect Theory
Proposes that people choose to take on risk when evaluation potential losses and avoid risks when evaluation potential gains.
Frequency Format Hypothesis
The proposal that our minds evolved to notice how frequently things occur, not how likely they are to occur.
Means-Ends Analysis
A process of searching for the means or steps to reduce differences between the current situation and the desired goal.
Analogical Problem Solving
Solving a problem by finding a similar problem with a known solution to that current problem.
Functional Fixedness
The tendency to perceive the function of objects as fixed.
A mental activity that consists of organizing information or beliefs into a series of steps to reach conclusions.
Practical Reasoning
Figuring out what to do or reasoning directed toward action.
Theoretical Reasoning
Reasoning directed toward arriving at a belief.
Belief Bias
People's judgments about whether to accept conclusions depend more on how believable the conclusions are than on whether the arguments are logically valid.
Syllogistic Reasoning
Determining whether a conclusion follows from two statement that assumed to be true.
Expressive vocabulary
what you used in speech or writing
Receptive vocabulary
what you understand when someone speaks
early sounds babies make spontaneously which include all phonemes
universal across cultures
How we learn language
10-12 months begin to use single words.
12-18 months are able to use 20-30 words
At age 2
Most speak 3-word sentences.
24-36 months have a vocabulary of 1000 words
age 5
Understand the meaning of about 2000 words
age 6
Have almost all basic rules of grammar
age 10
Can produce about 20,000 to 30,000 words daily
Perceptual Concept
based on physical similarities instead of language
Schema: an alternative term for a Perceptual Concept.
Symbolic Concept
mental representation of the similarities among objects & events, based on language.
Linguistic Relativity Hypothesis / Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis
(also known as the Whorfian Hypothesis or the Linguistic Relativity Hypothesis)
says that people who use different languages have different ways of looking at the world, organizing it, and thinking about it.
Edward Sapir
Benjamin Lee Whorf
effects of social context
language changes within the social situation
is a mental process of drawing logical conclusions from facts you already know.
a research chimp worked with by Sue Savage Rumbaugh,
learned to communicate by using a geometric keyboard system.
refers to meaning of words
Broca's Area
if damaged, patients have a hard time producing sentences.
Wernicke's area
if damaged, patients can produce sentences but the tend to be meaningless.