How can we help?

You can also find more resources in our Help Center.

119 terms

Biology 621A - Final Exam Review Set

Combination of terms and vocabulary from Chapters 16 - 20
STUDY
PLAY
DNA
deoxyribonucleic acid; the unique genetic code for every living thing.
Watson and Crick
Scientists who proposed the double helix structure of DNA
adenine
The base that pairs with Thymine in DNA
thymine
The base that pairs Adenine in DNA
cytosine
The base that pairs with Guanine with DNA
guanine
The base that pairs with Cytosine in DNA
Thomas Morgan
Documented sex-linked traits in fruit flies
replication
The process by which a cell makes a copy of the DNA in its nucleus
Deoxyribose
A five-carbon sugar found in DNA.
Phosphate group
alternates with deoxyribose to make up the sides of DNA
Griffith
used mice to discover that genetic material had a transforming factor,
Hershey and Chase
Identified DNA to be genetic material through experiments with bacteriophages
Initiation
DNA replication is initiated when helicase enzyme breaks the hydrogen bonds holding the base pairs together and the DNA uncoils.
Elongation
Addition of nucleotides on uncoiled DNA through polymerase.
Ligase
The enzyme that joins DNA fragments together
RNA
Ribonucleic acid; a nucleic acid that plays an important role in the production of proteins
Protein synthesis
The assembly of chains of amino acids into functional protein molecules
Uracil
a nitrogen-containing base found in RNA (but not in DNA)
mRNA
Messenger RNA; the RNA molecule that serves as the template for protein synthesis.
tRNA
Transfer RNA; the type of RNA that carries an amino acid from the cytoplasm to the ribosome for incorporation into a growing protein.
rRNA
Ribosomal RNA; the type of RNA that associates with ribosomal proteins to make a functional ribosome.
Transcription
A process in which DNA is used as a template to make complementary messenger RNA.
Translation
The assembly of a protein on a ribosome, using mRNA to direct the order in wich amino acids are added to the protein being made.
AUG
Start codon for protein synthesis.
ribosome
A cell organelle which functions as the site of protein synthesis in the cytoplasm; consists of rRNA and protein molecules, which make up two subunits.
exons
coding regions; parts of a gene that are expressed as amino acids
introns
sequences of nucleotides not involved in coding for proteins
oncogenes
genes that cause cancer by blocking the normal controls on cell reproduction
structural genes
a DNA sequence that codes for a specific product
repressor protein
a regulatory protein that binds to an operator and blocks transcription of the genes of an operon
operator gene
controls the activity of the structured genes (switches on/off to control transcription)
mutations
change in the nucleotide sequence of DNA
Substitution Mutation
A single nucleotide is replaced by a different nucleotide
missense mutation
a type of point mutation that results in an alternate incorrect amino acid to be coded; produces a disfunctional protein
nonsense mutation
a mutation that changes an amino acid codon to one of the 3 stop codons, resulting in a shorter and usually nonfunctional protein
silent mutation
a type of point mutation in which no harmful effect is produced
genetics
The branch of biology that studies the ways in which heredity information is passed on from parents to offspring.
Mendel
____ is considered the "father of genetics"....was the first to use the experimental method to study inheritance.
phenotype
The physical traits that appear in an individual as a result of its genetic make up.
genotype
genetic makeup of an organism
trait
a specific characteristic that can be inherited
test cross
the crossing of an individual of unknown genotype with a homozygous recessive individual to determine the genotype of the unknown individual
punnet square
a table used to predict possible traits in offspring
law of segregation
Mendel's law that states that the pairs of homologous chromosomes separate in meiosis so that only one chromosome from each pair is present in each gamete
principle of dominance
states that if a dominant allele is present, it will be expressed in an organism
probability
the chance of an event occurring
Thomas Morgan
Documented sex-linked traits in fruit flies
recessive
describes a trait or an allele that is expressed only when two recessive alleles for the same characteristic are inherited
dominant
a trait that is always expressed, even in heterozygous conditions
heterozygous
an organism that has two different alleles for a gene
homozygous
an organism that has two identical alleles for a trait
hybrid
organisms that have two different alleles for a certain trait
purebred
an organism which has 2 identical alleles for a trait
law of independent assortment
states that allele pairs separate independently during the formation of gametes
monohybrid cross
a cross between individuals that involves one pair of contrasting traits
dihybrid cross
a cross that involves two pairs of contrasting traits
sex linked trait
trait that is coded for by an allele on a sex chromosome
autosome
any chromosome other than a sex chromosome
hemophilia
a sex-linked recessive disorder defined by the absence of one or more of the proteins required for blood clotting
color blindness
A sex-linked trait in which an individual cannot perceive certain colors.
barr body
Inactivated extra X chromosomes in nuclei, only 1 X chromosome is activated per cell
multiple alleles
Three or more different forms of a gene, each producing a different phenotype.
polygenic inheritance
Occurs when groups of gene pairs act together to produce a specific trait
amniocentisis
Testing of the amniotic fluid for genetic birth defects
chorionic villus sampling
removal of a small piece of the chorion for genetic analysis; may be done at an earlier stage of pregnancy that amniocentesis
Huntington's disease
autosomal-dominant genetic disorder which affects cognitive and mental abilities
allele
one of the alternative forms of a gene that governs a characteristic, such as hair color
Amniocentesis
a medical procedure in which a sample of cells from the amniotic fluid is tested for abnormalities in a fetus
Chorionic Villi Sampling
sampling of cells from the chorion to test for genetic conditions in a fetus. The cells are grown in a special medium after which a karyotype can be used to make a diagnosis.
Fetoscopy
enables direct observation of the fetus through an endoscope to allow medical professionals to safely perform various procedures directly inside the womb
Genetic Markers
any characteristic that provides information about an organism's genome
Gel Electrophoresis
can be used to generate a DNA fingerprint.
Prenatal diagnoses
____________ can be used to determine some genetic conditions and disorders
Gene therapy
_______________ is being tested as one way to reverse some of the effects of genetic disorders
GMOs
Genetically modified organisms
GMFs
Genetically modified foods
Chorionic Villi Sampling
Used to test for genetic defects and can be done as early as the ninth week of pregnancy
Restriction Enzymes
enzymes which recognize a specific short sequence of nucleotides (the target sequence) on a strand of DNA and cut the strand at a particular point within that sequence
Recombinant DNA
segments of DNA from two different species that are joined in a laboratory to form a single molecule of DNA
Polymerase Chain Reaction
almost entirely automated method of replicating DNA that allows researchers to target and amplify a very specific sequence within a DNA sample
Cloning
a process in which an identical copy of an organism or part of an organism that has the same genetic make-up, such as the offspring of asexual reproduction, a general term for the research activity that creates a copy of some biological entity (a gene or organism or cell)
Human Genome Project
Determined the sequence of three billion base pairs that make up the human genome
Restriction Site
the specific sites at which a restriction enzyme will cleave DNA
evolution
the change in a population's inherited traits from generation to generation
adaptation
A trait that helps an organism survive and reproduce.
variation
Significant deviations from the normal biological form or structure
natural selection
process by which individuals that are better adapted to the environment are more likely to survive and reproduce than others
artificial selection
process where humans selectively breed organisms to obtain a certain phenotype
Hutton and Lyell
scientists who proposed the Earth was millions of years old due to their geological findings.
George Cuvier
scientist who proposed natural events caused previous animal species to become extinct.
Thomas Malthus
predicted the population would outgrow the food source if restrictions were not put in place
Lamarck
French naturalist who proposed that evolution resulted from the inheritance of acquired characteristics
Charles Darwin
English natural scientist who formulated a theory of evolution by natural selection.
fossil record
chronological collection of life's remains in sedimentary rock layers
homologous
having the same evolutionary origin but serving different functions
vestigial
body structure that has no function in a present day organism but was useful to an ancestor
paleontology
the study of fossils
catastrophism
proposed by George Cuvier,
Beagle
the ship that Charles Darwin sailed in
gradualism
a model of evolution in which gradual change over a long period of time leads to biological diversity
Uniformitarianism
is the idea that the geologic processes that operate today also operated in the past
Hardy-Weinberg principle
theory stating that in the absence of forces that change the proportions of alleles at a give locus, the original genotype proportions will remain constant from one generation to the next, in a large population with random mating
Hardy-Weinberg Equation
p^2 + 2pq+q^2=1
Genetic drift
the change in frequencies of particular alleles in a small population, caused by chance alone
gene flow
movement of new genes into a gene pool. This movement can reduce difference between populations that were caused by isolation and genetic drift.
non-random mating
any situation in which individuals do not choose mates on a random basis, such as mating in base don proximity, relatedness, or similarity of phenotype
mutation
Permanent change in the genetic material of an organism
founder effect
cause of genetic drift due to a small group of individuals colonizing a new area; the small group probably will not contain all the genes represented in the parent population
bottleneck effect
occurs when a population is greatly reduced by events such as natural disaster or over hunting, resulting in certain alleles being overrepresented and other alleles being underrepresented or absent in the population due to chance
inbreeding
mating between closely related partners
assortative mating
type of non-random mating in which individuals choose partners that have similar phenotype such as size
sexual selection
selection for mating based in general on competition between males and choices made by females (ie. humans)
sexual dimorphism
the difference between males and females of the same species
chemical evolution
theory that life on Earth occurred began as the natural result of the evolution of inorganic matter
panspermia theory
suggest that life originated elsewhere in the universe and then migrated to our planet
Gaia theory
view that earth is a living super organism which is maintained and regulated by life on its surface
intelligent design theory
suggests that life mechanisms are too complex to have evolved by chance, must have been directed by an unidentified supernatural intelligence
symbiogenesis
the merging of organisms into new collectives; development of a new species through close association of organisms of different species that is of mutual benefit
Stanley Miller
designed an experiment to test the Oparin-Haldane theory by preparing an atmosphere similar to early earth with electric sparks as an energy source. Resulted in the production of several organic compounds