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Symons and JohnsonPerformed meta-analysis on recall to show that self-reference was more effective than semantic or sensory encodingMary Ann Foley and Coauthorsdemonstrated that people underestimate the power of the self-reference effect. People might use the self-reference strategy when they are asked to use shallow processing for stimuli. Instructed students to listen to a list of familiar, concrete nouns and instructed them to form a particular mental image about the noun or told them to imagine self using the object before hearing the word. People in the visualize the object category often pictured themselves using the object which cause self-reference. Repeated the process a second time and sorted words according to processing method. Showed scores three times higher for those who imagined themselves using the object. Shows that participants might transform the instructions, influencing the resultsFactors Responsible for the self-reference effect1) self produces a rich set of cues that are distinctive from one another 2) consider how personal traits are related to one another 3) Rehearse material more frequently if it is associated with yourselfEncoding Specificity PrincipleRecall is better if the retrieval context is similar to the encoding contextViorica Marian and Caitlin Fausytested people living in Chile who were fluent in English and Spanish. Participants listened: Two in Spanish and Two in English. Listen to question about each story with half in the original language (Spanish-Spanish) and half mismatched. Participants were instructed to answer in the same language as the question. People were more accurate if they heard and answered the questions in Spanish then if they heard the story in Spanish and answered in English. Proves we often forget material assoiciated with contexts other than our present contextRecallParticipants must reproduce the items they learned earlierRecognitionParticipants must identify the items they learned at an earlier timePollyanna Principlepleasant items are usually processed more efficiently and more accurately than less pleasant itemsBushmanrecorded 15-minute segments of a violent and non-violent video. Asked participants to watch one of the videos and recall two brand names that had been shown during the commercials of the videos. Recall was better for the non-violent videoRichard Walkerasked participants to record one personal event each day for fourteen weeks and rate the pleasantness and intensity of the event. Asked three months later to review the events and rerate the pleasantness. Neutral events did not change in rating, but pleasant events were rated as slightly less pleasant and non-pleasant events were rated as more. Shows positivity effectPositivity EffectPeople tend to rate past events more positively with the passage of time. Especially strong in the elderlyWalker and DepressionStudied a group of students who were prone to depression and a group who was not. Those without showed the usual positivity effect those with showed equal fading for unpleasant and pleasant events (people with depression look back on negative experiences with the same amount of negativity)Mood CongruencePeople recall material more accurately if its congruent with the current moodLaura MurrayTest a group of students with and without depressive tendencies and asked them to recall a list of 20 positive words and 20 negative words. Nondepressed individuals recalled a greater overall percentage of the words than the depression prone students. Nondpressed got slightly more positive words correct and depressed got slightly more negative words correct.Amy Strachman and Shelly GableAsked college students to read a story focused on interpersonal relationships that included positive, negative, and neutral statements. Asked students to recall the essay as accurately as possible afterwards. Showed that social goals were not related to number of items recalled, however; students with high approach social goals tend to recall neutral statements as being more positive than they actually were in the story. Students high in avoidance recalled the positive and neutral statements as being more negative than they actually were.Social Goalsstyle of interacting with other people in terms of friendship and interpersonal relationsApproach Social Goalstend to emphasize close relationships with other peopleExplicit Memory TasksResearcher directly instructs participants to remember information; participants are conscious that their memory is being tested and the test requires them to retrieve information they have previously learnedImplicit Memory TaskPeople see material such as a series of words or pictures and are instructed to complete a cognitive task that does not directly ask for either recall or recognitionRepetition Priming TaskRecent exposure to a word increases the likelihood that you'll think of this particular word when you are given a cue that should evoke many different wordsDissociationoccurs when a variable has large effects on Test A but little or no effects on Test BProactive InterferencePeople have trouble learning new material because previously learned material keeps interfering with new learningRetrograde AmnesiaLoss of memory for events that have occurred prior to brain damageAnterograde AmnesiaLoss of memory for events that have occurred after brain damage. have trouble with explicit memory tasks such as recall or recognitionElizabeth Warrington and Lawrence WeiskrantzAdministered implicit memory tasks presented as word-guessing games. Participants showed previously presented English words in a mutated form that was difficult to and asked to guess what the word represented. Implicit memory scores of participants with amnesia and the control group were virtually identical. Shows a dissociation between amnesia patients on an explicit and implicit memory taskExpertisePerson shows consistently exceptional performance on representative tasks in a particular areaContext Specific Nature of Expertise1) strong correlation between knowledge about an area and memory performance in that area 2) people who are expert in one area seldom display outstanding general memoryCharacteristics of An Expert1) posses well organized, carefully learned knowledge structure which assists them during encoding and retrieval 2) Likely to reorganize new material they must recall forming meaningfull chunks in which related material is grouped together 3) Vivid visual images for items they must recall 4) Work hard to emphasize distinctiveness during encoding 5) Rehearse in a unique fashion 6) Can reconstruct missing portions of information from partially learned material 7) Skilled at predicting difficulty of task and monitoring progressOwn-Race BiasPeople are more accurate in identifying members of their own ethnic group than members of another ethnic group. Develop expertise for facial features of ethnic group we frequently interact withAutobiographical MemoryMemory for events and issues related to yourself. Schemas in this memory can shape memory for previous events to become more consistent with current viewpointSource MonitoringCan make mistakes when trying to remember where and when one learned certain informationSchemaGeneral knowledge or expectation that is distilled from past experiences with an event or a personConsistency Biastend to exaggerate the consistency between past feelings and beliefs and current viewpoints; tell life stories so that they are consistent with out current schemas about ourselvesMarshasked two groups of college students to discuss an open-ended question and asked to come back a week later and identify who said what during the conversation; few source monitoring errors. Asked second group to write down new answer to the questions that had not been supplied before. Source monitoring occurred because students wrote down ideas that had been previously discussed. Show how recognition tests forces us to adopt stricter criteria with source monitoring while it is more relaxed when we are generating ideasFlashbulb MemoriesMemory for the circumstances in which one first learns a very surprising and emotionally arousing factClassical Study - Roger Brown and James KulikFound that people tend to describe details such as their location when they heard the new and the person who gave them the newsFactors Affecting the Accuracy of Eyewitness Testimony1) Errors are likely to occur when there is a long delay between original event and time of testimony 2) Errors occur if misinformation is plausible 3) Errors are likely if there are social pressures 4) Errors are likely if the eyewitnesses have been given positive feedbackPost Event Misinformation EffectPeople first view an event, and then are given misleading information about the event. Later are likely to recall the misleading informationRetroactive InterferencePeople have trouble recalling old material because recently learned material keeps interfering with old memoriesElizabeth LoftusShowed participants slides in which a car stopped at a yield sign or a stop sign before hitting a pedestrian. Later asked questions that were consistent with a detail in the original slide, inconsistent, or neutral. Asked to select which slide they had previously seen. People in the inconsistent group were less accurate than consistent or neutral. Wrong answers can be traced to faulty source monitoring because the post-event misinformation effect encourage people to create an image of the stop sign.Constructivist ApproachArgues that we construct knowledge by integrating what we know so that our understanding of an event or topic is coherentRecovered Memory Perspectivesome individual who experience traumatizing events in childhood manage to forget the information for many yearsFalse Memory PerspectiveMany recovered memories are actually incorrectMemory StrategiesMental activities that help improve encoding and retrievalGiles Einstein and Mark McDanielCan learn and remember complex material more easily if you create why questions because you must use deep processing about the material to interconnect the new material to what is already knownTotal Time HypothesisAmount of learning depends on total time devoted to studying. Retrieval practice improves test performanceDistributed Practice EffectWill remember more information if you space learning trials over time. Same for recall and recognition testsTesting Effecttaking a test boosts long-term recall for academic materialHenry Roediger and Jeffery KarpickeAsked students to read short essays. Half read the essay again while the other half took a test on the essay without receiving feedback about accuracy. Both group took test again a week later. Those who took test without rereading the essay scored higher the second timeMnemonicsMental strategies designed to improve memoryBower and Winzenzasked participants to repeat pairs of words silently to themselves while another group tried to construct a mental image of the two words in interaction with one another. Asked to recall the words a week later; people in imagery group did better than repetition group. Shows how imagery is more effective when the items are interacting with one anotherKeyword MethodIdentify an English word that sounds similar to new word and then create an image that links the keyword to the meaning of the new wordCarney and LevinShowed sketches of unfamiliar animals each paired with an animals named. Control group was told to use their own customary images while variable group was told to imagine a capybara with a cap. Imagery-group were more accurate in identifying the animals in video clips and sketches. Shows keyword methodMethod of LociAssociate items to be learned with a series of visual images of physical locations; good fro remembering lists of items in a specific orderOrganizationAttempt to bring systematic order to the material that we learnHierarchy TechniqueSystem in which items are arranged in a series of classes from the most general to specific classesFirst Letter TechniqueTake first letter of each word to remember and compose a word or sentence from each letterNarrative Techniqueinstructs people to make up stories that link a series of words together; only effective if generated easily and reliably during learning and recallDouglas Hermann's Multimodal Memory Approachemphasizes that people who want to enhance their memory must adopt a comprehensive approach to memory improvement that focuses on different modes are factorsEllen Langer's Mindfulness approachRequires flexible approach to the world with particular sensitivity to new things and an appreciation for new ways of approaching a problemProspective Memoryremembering what needs to be done in the future. Requires that you establish that you intend to accomplish a particular task at a particular time. Hard to remember the content of the actionAbsentmindednessProspective memory tasks represent a divided attention situation between the current task and task that must be completed in the future. Likely in familiar surroundings when performing tasks automaticallyImproving Prospective MemoryExternal memory aids - placement is extremely importantMetacognitionKnowledge and control of cognitive processes; use to select and supervise the way we use use memory strategiesForesight Biasoverestimate the number of answers one will correctly supply on a future test. Prediction of test score is normally wrong because the stimulus is not present on the testThomas Nelson and R. Jacob Leonesioexamined how students distributed their study time when they can study at own pace. Students allocated more study time to the material they believed would be difficult but did not review all material equallyLisa Son and Janet MetcalfeFound that students spend more time on difficult tasks but studies on time allocation focused on relatively easy material. Tested students on 8 encyclopedia style biographies and gave students 30 minutes to read each one. Had students read a paragraph and rank difficulty of material. Showed that students spent more time on easy biographies than hard ones. Experts focus on harder material in crunch timeTip of the Tongue PhenomenonSubjective feeling you have when you are confident that you know the target word but cannot recall it. Bilinguals experience more than multilingualsBrown and McNeilProduced tip of the tongue state by giving people the definition of an uncommon word and ask them to identify it. Asked people to provide words that resembled the target word in terms of sound and found that similar sounding words resembled target wordsFeeling of KnowingPrediction about whether you could correctly recognize the correct answer to a question. Predominant if people can retrieve a large amount of partial informationMetacomprehension Accuracystudents believe they understand something they have read because they are familiar with its general topic, but fail to retain specific information. Students with low reading ability are overconfident when estimating scores on a difficult test while high readers are underconfidentPressley and GhatalaStudents answered multiple choice questions from Scholastic Aptitude Test and rated how certain they were that they had correctly answered the questions. Certainty rating measured metacomprehension. Certain rating of 73% when question was correct and 64% when wrong. Highly overconfident studentsImproving Metacomprehension1) Pretest 2) Read a passage and then summarizeWorking Memorybrief, immediate memory for the material that you are currently processing; coordinates on-going mental activities. Keeps information active and accessible so that it may be used in other tasksGeorge Miller's Magical Number 7Wrote "The Magical Number Seven, Plus or Minus Two: Some Limits on Our Capacity for Processing Information. Says people can remember between 5 and 9 items at a time. used chunk as the basic unit for short term memoryChunkA memory unit that consists of several components that are strongly associated with one anotherBrown/Peterson and Peterson TechniqueJohn Bron/Lloyd and Margaret Peterson showed material in memory for less than a minute is frequently forgottenPeterson and PetersonAsked people to study three letters, followed by a three digit number, and then counted backed by threes from the number. Prevented participants from rehearsing the stimuliSerial Position EffectU shaped relationship between a word's position in a list and the probability of recall. Items at beginning and end of the list are more likely to be recalled because of primacy and recencyAtkinson and Shiffrins ModelEnvironmental Input goes to Sensory Memory which must be interpreted with attention to transform into Short Term Memory. Rehearsal and Retrieval send the information between long-term and short-term memoryPronunciation TimeStrongly influence the number of items we can store in working memoryWorking Memory ApproachProposed by Alan Baddeley; immediate memory is a multipart system that temporarily holds and manipulates the information we perform as cognitive tasksAlan Baddeley and Graham HitchAgreed that short-term memory should hold several related bits of information at the same time so that the information can be working and use. Answers what short-term memory accomplishes for cognitive goalsEvidence for Components with Individual Capacity - Baddeley and HitchPresent participants with a string of randoms and told them to rehearse them in order while also completing a reasoning task. Did well on both simultaneous tasksPhonological LoopProcesses a limited number of sounds for a short period of time, performs simple counting tasks, math and problem tasks by keeping track of numbers and other InformationConrad and HullShowed participants two kinds of lists of letters from the English alphabet. Asked participants to recall letters from the list; were better at recalling second list because sounds were different. Shows how we are likely to confuse similar sounding stimuliDylan JonesPeople confuse acoustically similar sounds when they are rehearsing, not when they are in the phonological loopVisuospatial SketchpadProcesses visual and spatial information, stores a coherent picture of an objects visual appearance and its relative position in the scene, retains brief image of a scene so that you may find your way from one location to the next. Too many items in this component will cause a drop in representative accuracyCentral ExecutiveIntegrates information from the phonological loop, visuospatial sketchpad, episodic buffer, and long-term memory. Helps focus attention, planning strategies, transforming information, and coordinating behavior. Plans and coordinates but does not store. Limited ability to perform simultaneous tasksTeasdaleRandom number generator task; required participants to supply one digit every second while interrupting every 2 minutes to write down thoughts. Showed that participants had generated a random sequence of numbers. When daydreaming, participants could not produce a random string of numbers because a large portion of their Central Executive system was occupiedEpisodic BufferTemporary storehouse where we gather and combine information from the phonological loop, sketchpad, and long-term memory. component of memory where information can be combined with long-term memory
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The following table compares U.S. population (millions) with U.S. per-capita consumption of bottled water (gallons).
Year 20022003200420052006x= U.S. Population 287.9 million 290.4293.2295.9298.8y= Per-Capita Consumption of Bottled Water 20.1 gallons 21.623.225.527.6
c. During a year in which the U.S. population is 320 million, what would be the prediction for percapita consumption of bottled water?
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