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21 terms

Chemistry 521A - Chapter 6

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Periodic Law
when the elements are arranged in order of increasing atomic number, there is a periodic repetition of their physical and chemical properties
Metals
good conductors of heat and electric current; metals tend to be shiny, ductile, and malleable
Non-metals
poor conductors of heat and electric current
Metalloids
have properties that are similar to those of metals and nonmetals
alkali metals
any metal in gropu 1A of the periodic table
alkaline earth metals
any metal in group 2A of the periodic table
noble gases
an element in group 8A of the periodic table; the s and p sublevels of the highest occupied energy level are filled
representative elements
an element in an A group in the periodic table; as a group these elements display a wide range of physical and chemical properties. In their atoms, the s an p sublevels in the highest occupied energy level are partially filled
transition metals
one of the group B elements in which the highest occupied s sublevel and a nearby d sublevel generally contain electrons
inner transition metals
an element in the lanthanide or actinide series; the highest occupied s subevel and a nearby f sublevel of its atoms generally contain electrons; also called inner transition element
period
a horizontal row of elements in the periodic table
group
a vertical column of elements in the periodic table
Periodic table
an arrangement of elemetns in which the elements are separated into groups based on a set of repeating properties
halogens
non-metals of group 7A
ion
an atom of group of atoms that has a positve or negative charge
anion
any atom of group of atoms with a negative charge
atomic radius
one-half the distance between the nuclei of two atoms of the same element when the atoms are joined
electronegativity
the ability of an atom to attract electrons when the atom is in a compound
cation
any atom or group of atoms with a positive charge
ionization energy
the energy requried to remove an electron from an atom in its gaseous state
ionic radius
decreases for cations and anions from left to right across a period