123 terms

psyc130 final

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ageism
a prejudice: people, categorized & judged based on chronological age
older adults
feel they are more youthful than their age mates
ageism effects
some younger adults & media discourage the elderly from leaving home
elderspeak
condescending way of speaking to older adults, like baby talk ( simple & short sentences, exaggerated emphasis, repetition, a slower rate & higher pitch)
stereotype threat
- anxiety that others have prejudiced beliefs.
-responses: dyeing hair, plastic surgery, dressing youthful, moving quickly to look agile.
- if people believe their memories are fading, this anxiety may impair their memory
gerontology
multidisciplinary study of old age
geriatrics
medical specialty devoted to aging
demographic shift
shifts in proportion of the populations of various ages. 80, fastest growing age group in the U.S.
centenarian
person who has lives 100 years or more
young-old
healthy, vigorous, financially source, well integrated into lives of family and community " LARGEST PROPORTION "
old-old
older adults, suffer from physical, mental or social deficits
oldest-old
elderly adults, dependent on others for almost everything, supportive services
older people probably give more
care than they receive
older people more likely to
vote, pray, participate in civic groups, and donate time and money to various causes and to their own descendants
only the oldest-old
need ongoing care
in the U.S. and canada only about
4% of the over 65 population are in nursing homes or hospitals
wear and tear theory
human body wears out due to passage of time and exposure to environmental risks
selective optimization with compensation
maintain balance by seeking ways to compensate for physical and cognitive loss. increasing proficiency in activities ( driving, vision, etc..)
control processes
the part of information-processing that regulates analysis and flow of information ( storage, retrieval, selective attention, problem solving)
senescence
gradual physical decline related to aging
primary aging
universal and irreversible physical changes that occur to all living creatures as they grow older
secondary aging
specific physical illnesses or conditions that become more common with aging but result from poor health habits, genetic vulnerability, and other influences that vary from person to person
dementia
irreversible loss of intellectual functioning ( from organic brain damage or disease)
Alzheimer's disease (AD)
most common cause of dementia brains at autopsy show plaques and tangles
parkinson's disease
muscle tremor and rigidity dementia
polypharmacy
when elderly people are prescribed several medications, the various side effects and interactions of the many drugs can result in dementia symptoms
life review
examination of one's role in history of human life, (many elderly write journals to pursue this)
a survey of 3,435 college students in 26 nations
found that people in evert nation agreed that wisdom was characteristic of the elderly
promote longevity
-diet: fresh vegetables and herbs
- family & community
-exercise & relaxation
-work
An aspect of impaired control processes is evidenced when an older adult
relies, when making decisions, on preconceived ideas rather than considering new evidence
Most late adults who maintain sufficient intellectual powers
gain a greater appreciation of aesthetics and become creative
Source amnesia is
forgetting the source of a specific fact or idea
Ageism, or prejudice about late adulthood, is common among people
of all ages
The universal and irreversible physical changes that occur to all living creatures as they grow older is referred to as
primary aging
In 2012, the average life expectancy for women in the U.S. was ____ years
81
The views embodied by ageism have recently shifted because of
demographic shifts
Evidence of an impaired cognitive retrieval strategy is
showing more tip-of-the-tongue forgetfulness.
reduced verbal fluency.
less accurate memory for names
Wisdom is increased by
experiences and practice in dealing with life's problems
The ___________ suffer some losses in body, mind, or social support, but they proudly care for themselves
old-old
The term used to refer to the universal changes that happen as people age is
primary aging
Wisdom
does and does not increase with age.
is a social virtue.
is rare at any age
_________ is a buildup of fluid within the eye
Glaucoma
Dementia is characterized by
mental confusion and forgetfulness.
impairment in social and occupational functioning.
impaired problem-solving abilities.
Older adults' memory for ______ usually remains quite good, whereas memory for ________ usually declines
words; names
For humans, the maximum life span is approximately __________ years
122
Adult cognitive abilities begin to decline around age 60, and there is a particularly notable decline in
spatial perception and processing speed
__________ is the most common cause of blindness
Macular degeneration
________ affects parts of the brain that regulate emotion, causing compassion and self-awareness to fade
Frontal lobe dementia
The specific illnesses that become more common with aging are referred to as
secondary aging
Which of the following comments about the life review is false
Nostalgia represents a preoccupation with self that is meaningless
Which of the following is NOT a reason for the traditional pyramidal shape of the demographic pyramid
Environmental factors ensured that each cohort was reduced consistently after age 50
The largest organized political group in the world is _______, with _________ million members
AARP; 35
Lack of participation in volunteering by the elderly can be attributed to
ageism.
lack of recruitment by organizations.
their concern with their own needs.
As generations have ______ members, it is predicted that intergenerational relationships will become ______ important
fewer; more
Letting go of past roles found in social circles, so as to avoid a fast-paced life, is called
disengagement
A beanpole family is
a span of generations of a family that has only a few members in each generation
Sexual intimacy is a major aspect of long-lasting marriages. Younger adults tend to measure sexual activity by _______, and older adults value _______
frequency of orgasm; satisfaction of intimacy
Recent research concerning work and retirement has found that most older adults want to _______
stop working as soon as they are eligible to do so
Which statement is true about caregivers?
Family caregivers may feel that they do not get enough help from other family members
Older people may not become frail if
buffers are available to help compensate their impairments
A self theory originating from Erikson is called
integrity versus despair
Feminist theory argues that old women may be poorer than old men because
of past sexual discrimination
Family caregivers of the frail elderly
experience substantial stress.
sometimes feel fulfilled.
are at a risk for depression.
Which of the following statements is true
Elderly people who have experienced racism and ethnic discrimination all their lives are generally poorer and more frail than other elderly people are
According to research by Hagedoorn (2006), never-married older adults are _______ than ________ are
happier; recent widows
Caregivers of the elderly are usually
a husband.
a wife.
another elderly person
Which statement is true about caregivers
Family caregivers may feel that they do not get enough help from other family members
__________ are common activities of those aging in place
Gardening and housework
Stratification theories are characterized by
social forces and cultural influences that limit choice and direct life
Long-term marriages are generally characterized by
people who are healthier, wealthier, and happier than unmarried people their age
About five percent of those over age 65 in the United States
have never married
A preference of the elderly to remain in the same home and community, adjusting but not leaving when health fades, is called
aging in place
goal in a negative interaction
people over age 65

-maintain goodwill 60%
self theories
focus on how the person sees themselves and their ability to meet challenges and keep their integrity and identity
positivity effect
elderly people perceive, prefer, and remember positive images and experiences more than negative ones
theories of late adulthood
integrity versus despair
Erik Erikson's last stage
-older adults seek to look back at lives and integrate their unique experiences with their perceptions
- objects and places more precious in late adulthood, as a way to hold on identity
continuity theory
each person experiences the changes of late adulthood and behaves toward others in ways consistent with earlier behavior
selective optimization with compensation
-central to self theories
- try to optimize development and find best way to compensate for losses
stratification theories
-social forces (social stratum or social category)
-may limit individual choices
-affect a person's ability to function in late adulthood; past stratification continues to limit life in various ways
stratification by age
-industrialized nations segregate elderly people
-segregation by age harms everyone, creates socialization deficits for members of all age groups
stratification by gender
puts males and females on separate tracks through life
stratification by ethnicity
ethnic background affects lifelong development (education, health, place of residence, and employment)
stratification by socioeconomic status
financial status, likely the biggest influence on elderly
disengagement theory
some elderly withdraw from previous social sphere may relinquish roles and become passive
activity theory
many elderly people want and need to remain active socially with relatives,friends, and community groups
work or retirement
-besides needing money, some employees over age 65 stay on the job for self-fulfillment and positive recognition
-for some the psychological benefits of work can be met through volunteerism
volunteerism
-elderly don't volunteer in large numbers, even though they would like to
-some are cautious to leave their homes or aren't recruited or trained or such experiences are short and intense ( no geared for elderly)
home sweet home
many retirees care for their own homes ( household tasks & maintain property)
aging in place
staying in same dwelling where they lived as younger adults, adjusting but not leaving when health fades (preferred by elderly)
do older adults prefer "home sweet home"?
65-74
Naturally occurring retirement community (NORC)
- neighborhood or apartment complex, population is mostly retired people who moved to location as younger adults and never left ( a social convoy from years of close relationship)
continuing education
about 1 of 5 U.S. adults ^^ and older, enrolled in continuing education for personal or social improvement (2005)
are older adults politically active
- many government politics affect the elderly ( housing, pensions, prescription drugs, and medical coasts)
-more older adults write letters to elected representatives, vote, and identify with a political party, but they don't volunteer
AARP
U.S. organization, people aged 50& older, advocates for elderly.
religious involvement
healthy lifestyle practice, social relationships increased, gives meaning to life, age & death, reducing stress
long-term partnerships
- spouses buffer each other against the problems of old age, thus extending life
- married older adults are healthier, wealthier, and happier than unmarried people their age
-another aspect of long marriages also suggests mutual respect
-generally, older spouses accept each other's frailties, assist with partner's physical and psychological needs
death of spouse
- adjustment to being widowed, especially difficult during the first two years after the death
-women tend to marry older men. the average married women experiences 4 to 10 years of widowhood and the average man, none.
relationships with younger generations
-today, some families span five generations
-beanpole family consists of multiple generations but only a few members if each one
- elderly people's relationships with members of young generations are USUALLY POSTIVE, BUT CAN ALSO INCLUDE TENSIONS AND CONFLICT
-few older adults stop parenting simply because their children are grown
filial responsibility
-obligation of adult children to care for aging parents
-yet, a major goal of U.S. adults to be self-sufficient
-adult children may be more willing to offer support than their parents are to receive it
in developed nations, grandparents fill one of four roles
- remote : honored but emotionally distant
-companionate : entrain & spoil grandchildren
-involved : live near, active in day to day lives of grandchildren
-surrogate : raise their grandchildren because parents are unable or unwilling
frail elderly
people over 65, and ofter over age 85, who are physically infirm, very ill, or cognitively disabled
activities of daily life ( ADLs)
five tasks:
- eating -bathing -tolerating -dressing - transferring from bed to chair
instrumental activities of daily life ( IADLs)
Actions, important independent living
caring for the frail elderly
- family caregivers experience substantial stress.
-their health may suffer, and their risk of depression increases especially if the care receiver has dementia
- in the U.S., the spouse is the usual caregiver
-about 5 percent of elders say they are abused ( 25% vulnerable, but don't report)
-elders who are mistreated by family members are ashamed to admit it
-outright abuse is now rare in nursing homes
assisted kiving
living arrangement for elderly, combines privacy and independence with medical supervisor
characteristics of a good death
- all the end of a long life
-peaceful
-quick
-in familial surroundings
- with family and friends present
-without pain, confusion, or discomfort
-mnemonic Q-FEPPS
Older adults
-death anxiety decreases and hope rises
- one sign of mental health : acceptance of their mortality and altruistic concern for those who will live on after them.
-many older adults accept death ( write their wills, designate health care proxies, reconcile with estranged family members, plan their funeral )
relgion & hope
-people who think they might die soon are more likely than others to believe in life after death
-virtually every world religion provides rites and customs to honor the dead and comfort the living
stages of dying : Kubier- ross
1- denial : i am not really dying
2- anger : i blame my doctors, or my family, or god for my death
3-bargaining : i will be good from now on if i can live
4- depression: i don't care about anything, nothing matters anymore
5- acceptance : i accept my death as part of life
telling the truth
most dying people want to spend time with loved ones and to talk honestly with medical and religious professionals
hospice ( admitted when death likely to occur in 6 months)
- institution or program; terminally ill patients receive palliative care
-hospice caregivers provides skilled treatment to relieve pain and discomfort they avoid measures to delay death and focus on making dying easier
palliative care
care designed not to treat an illness. provides physical and emotional comfort to the patient and support and guidance to the family
passive euthanasia
situation in which a seriously ill person is allowed to die naturally with no more medical intervention
DNR ( do not resuscitate)
written order from a physician ( sometimes initiated by a patient's advance directive or by a health care proxy's request) that no attempt should be made to revive a patient if he or she suffers cardiac or respiratory arrest
physician-assisted suicide
form of active euthanasia in which a doctor provides the means for someone to end his or her own life
advance directive
document that contains an individuals instructions for end-of-life medical care, written before such care is needed
living will
document that indicates what kinds of medical intervention an individual wants or does not want if he or she becomes incapable of expressing those wishes
health care proxy
person chosen by another person to make medical decisions if the person becomes unable to do so
bereavement
sense of loss following death
grief
powerful sorrow that an individual feels at the death of another
mourning
ceremonies and behaviors that a religion or culture prescribes for people to employ in expressing their bereavement after death
reactions to death are varied
other people need to be especially responsive to whatever needs a grieving person may have