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shows the kinds and numbers of atoms in the smallest representative unit of a substance
In forming compounds, atoms tend to react so as to acquire the stable electron configuration of a noble gas
Single Covalent Bond
a chemical bond in which only one pair of electrons is shared by two bonded atoms
a chemical formula that shows the arrangement of atoms in a molecule or polyatomic ion
a tightly bound group of atoms taht has a positive or negative charge and behaves as a unit
states that because electron pairs repel, molecules adjust their shapes so that valence-electron pairs are as far apart as possible
a bond formed when two atomic orbitals combine to form a molecular orbital that is symmetrical along the axis connecting the two atomic nuclei
a bond in which the bonding electrons are most likely to be found in the sausage-shaped regions above and below the nuclei of the bonded atoms
a process in which several atomic orbitals overlap to form the same number of equivalent hybrid orbitals
nonpolar covalent bond
a bond formed when the atoms in a molecule are alike and the bonding electrons are shared equally
polar covalent bond
a bond formed when two different atoms are joined by covalent bond and the bonding electrons are shared unequally
van der Waals forces
a term used to describe the weakest intermolecular attractions; these include dispersion forces and dipole interactions
attractions between molecules caused by the electron motion on one molecule affecting the electron motion on the other through electrical forces; they are the weakest interactions between molecules
attractive forces in which a hydrogen covalently bonded to a very electron negative atom is also weakly bonded to an unshared electron pair of another electronegative atom
one of the two or more equally valid electron dot structures of a molecule or a polyatomic ion
a relative measure of an atom's ability to attract the shared electrons in a chemical bond
the amount of energy required to break a specific bond in one mole of molecule, given in kJ/mole
a symbolic representation of the arrangement of the valence electrons of an element or compound
states that when bonds form, atoms gain, lose or share electrons in such as way as to achieve an octet or filled energy level
when the elements are arranged in order of increasing atomic number, there is a periodic repetition of their physical and chemical properties
good conductors of heat and electric current; metals tend to be shiny, ductile, and malleable
an element in group 8A of the periodic table; the s and p sublevels of the highest occupied energy level are filled
an element in an A group in the periodic table; as a group these elements display a wide range of physical and chemical properties. In their atoms, the s an p sublevels in the highest occupied energy level are partially filled
one of the group B elements in which the highest occupied s sublevel and a nearby d sublevel generally contain electrons
inner transition metals
an element in the lanthanide or actinide series; the highest occupied s subevel and a nearby f sublevel of its atoms generally contain electrons; also called inner transition element
an arrangement of elements in which the elements are separated into groups based on a set of repeating properties
one-half the distance between the nuclei of two atoms of the same element when the atoms are joined
Dalton's atomic theory
the first theory to relate chemical changes to events at the atomic level; described the structure and chemical reactivity of matter in terms of atoms
stream of electrons produced at the negative electrode of a tube containing a gas at low pressure
atoms of the same element have the same atomic number of different atomic masses due to a different number of neutrons
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