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Phil 004 Final Study Guide
Terms in this set (42)
race determines mental qualities such as feelings and thought patterns
Blood Quantum Laws
determine someone's racial identity in terms of having a specific percentage of genetic lineage (quantity of blood)
(Hill) the belief that an individual is the bearer of rights- that individuals have their moral worth determined by their own traits and not by group membership
speech or behavior experienced by members of racial or ethnic minority groups as indirect or covert prejudice or discrimination
racism that operates unconsciously and unintentionally
Willed Ignorance of the contribution of others
the creation of groups categories (supposedly biological categories for biopolitics) aiming at the differential privileging of specific groups
racial profiling in medicine
when race is used as a proxy for a drug response
example: Bidil, a medicine targeted specifically towards African Americans since they were most "prone" to said disease
medicine developed and applied because of hereditary or physiological differences among racial groups
veil of ignorance
fair to make decisions not knowing what class of person you will be, so that laws will be made to (relativity) advantage all classes
the process of extending justice already applied to some people, to new groups or individuals
principles of justice for well-ordered liberal societies
non ideal theory
theories of justice for nonideal societies that seek to bring them closer to ideal societies
an economic focus on the ability of individuals to transform goods available to them into instruments for their own well-being
the unpopular practice of specifying numbers of minorities to be included
group organization or identification for the sake of dealing with common problems for people with specific identities
theoretical method and description of people who experience multiple oppressions based on multiple identities
particular racialized sexism of black women; misogyny directed specifically toward black women where race and gender both play a role in bias
a strand of feminist theory that highlights the multiple disadvantages of gender, class, and race that shape the experiences of nonwhite women
what is biological collectivism?
the judgment of individuals not by the traits they possess, but by their ancestors.
According to Jason Hill, why we should drop the term "racial identity?"
because racial identity has no meaning. he believes that instead, we should use the term cosmopolitanism.
According to Kyle White, what problems come about when native populations define themselves in relationship to US colonialism?
they either lose their autonomy (by someone else's rules) or they risk losing regulatory power over their land.
Explain heart racism and head/mind racism?
heart-and-minds racism is explicitly racists beliefs or attitudes
three features of white saviorism
1. The world is nothing but a problem to be solved by enthusiasm
2. Not about justice but having a big emotional experience that validates privilege
3. The world exists simply to satisfy the sentimental needs of white people
What is institutional racism, how is it different from hearts and mind racism
occurs when institutional or social practices lead to unfair treatment of minorities whether or not there is a heart-and-mind component. It is different from heart-and-mind racism because it does not consist of explicitly racist beliefs or attitudes
How are Muslims racialized in the US according to Falguni Sheth?
Muslims are racialized in the US through legislation. The group targeted by Muslim legislation is not the same as the set of people who practice the religion of Islam, it is a biopolitical group
What is the difference and relationship between health disparities and health-care disparities?
health disparities are caused by something other than health-care practices
Describe one factor that contributes to health disparities?
racial stereotypes contribute to health disparities because
For Michael Root, what are two reasons why we should not use race as a reliable variable?
1) it does not capture genetic differences all that well
2) there is more genetic variation within a race, and most people are mixed
example of testimonial injustice in the health care industry
not taking certain bodies as credible because of prejudice
example: not believing in a black person's report of pain. this results in a misdiagnosis or even worse, death.
What is the logic of racial profiling in medicine
• I do not know how you would respond to a treatment
• But based on what I think your race is ...
• I can predict how you will respond
• Because there is a correlation between drug response and your race
• Therefore, this gives me a reason to recommend or not recommend a treatment
Explain one principle of justice according to John Rawls
difference principle is that social and economic inequalities are allowed when (a) they are the greatest benefit to the least-advantaged members o society and (b) all offices and positions should be open to all under conditions of fair equality of opportunity
What is affirmative action and the justification behind it?
the practice of positively considering nonwhite race and female gender for hiring and college admissions. It is justified because only the school has a compelling interest to promote legacy or athlete admission that has a compelling interest to promote racial diversity.
How is race (legally) taken into consideration when hiring or admitting people to colleges?
strict security: the judicial practice of closely examining the purpose of using race for employment and college admissions and determining that such usage does not exceed its purpose
Name one charge against affirmative action and one response.
it disrespects minority groups. it treats them as if they are unqualified. the response to this is that this ignores the bias in which qualified racial minorities are victims of
What are the requirements for a just apology according to Roberts?
compensation for wrongdoing but not necessarily an emotional component or a promise to change behavior
What is the difference between rectificatory justice and distributive justice?
The role of rectificatory justice is to restore the balance when someone has been treated unjustly. Distributive justice is concerned with the distribution of things that can be divided equally among others and maintaining a balance of public goods so that people get what's due to them
Describe a criticism of identity politics and a response to it
strategic criticism, used as a way to trivialize identity-based issues (LGBTQ, women, blacks, etc) that makes dominant groups uncomfortable. a response to this criticism is that all of our oppressions are important
What are the implications or possible outcomes of not thinking intersectionally according to Kimberle Crenshaw?
it allows people who are facing complex forms of dsicrimination, such as misogynoir, "to fall through the cracks" as a single axis analysis cannot account for these discriminations
What is identity politics not?
exclusionary or a competitive claim about oppression
What was illustratively useful in the term "intersectionality" and what significance does such an illustration have for explaining oppression?
allows people of different oppressed groups to see how others are being oppressed
Attempt to explain how judgments, black women are devalued and stereotyped in mainstream media but also appropriated, on the other?
black women are often devalued and stereotyped in mainstream media through music, like when they are used as sexual props (dancers). on the other hand, black women are appropriated through their physical features, such as their hair, butt, and skin color.
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