28 terms

Ch 35 The Immune System

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Pathgen
Disease-causing agent; can be a bacteria, virus, fungi, protein
Lysozyme
An enzyme that breaks down bacterial cell walls in invertebrates
Toll-Like Receptor
Protein that binds to foreign fragments that to a group of related pathogens
Phagocytes
General term for WBC that engulfs pathogens
Neutrophils
A phagocyte that is attracted by signals from infected cells and then engulfs pathogens
Macrophage
WBC that destroys larger pathogens
Dendritic Cells
WBCs that bring antigens to the lymph
Eosinophils
WBC that defends against multicell invaders
Natural Killer Cells
WBC that destroy Infected Cells
Interferons
Proteins that provide innate defense by interfering with viral infections
Complement System
A group of about 30 blood proteins that work together for a variety of immune responses
Cytokines
Signaling molecule promotes blood flow to infected regions and attract neutrophils
Histamines
Signaling molecule that causes capillaries to dilate, allows the neutrophils to exit the capillaries and enter the injury site
Humoral Immune System
The type of immunity that fights bacteria and viruses in body fluids with antibodies that circulate in blood plasma and lymph, fluids formerly called humors.
Cell-Mediated Immune Response
That type of immunity where specialized T cells destroy infected host cells
Lymphocytes
Another word for B and T cells
T-Cells
Lymphocytes that mature in the thymus
B-Cells
Lymphocytes that mature in bone marrow
Cytoxic T Cells
Effector cells of T-Cells that destroy infected host cells with toxic proteins to kill host cells
Helper T Cells
Effector cell of T cells that attach to an Antigen presenting cell and release cytokines that activate B and cytotoxic T cells
Memory Cells
General term for lymphocytes that will be used later for rapid immune response to the same pathogen
Plasma Cells
Effector cells of B cells that secrete antibodies that mark pathogens
Antigen
Pathogen that can bind to an antigen receptor
Antigen Receptor
Protein on a B cell, T cell, or antibody that binds to a pathogen
Epitope
Part of the antigen that binds to antigen receptor
Antibody/Immunoglobulin
Protein produced by B cells that provide a direct defense against pathogens
MHC
Cell surface protein of a host cell that presents antigen fragments for recognition of helper T cells to recognize and cause it to be destroyed.
Effector Cells
Short-lived cells that take effect immediately against the antigen that are clones of B or T cells