Create an account
Insertion of the Fibularis (peroneus) longus
tendon passes posterior to the lateral malleolus, crosses the sole of the foot, and inserts on the base of first metatarsal & medial cuneiform
Insertion of the Fibularis (peroneus) brevis
tendon passes posterior to the lateral malleolus to insert on tuberosity of the fifth metatarsal
Action of the Posterior Compartment of the Leg
•flex knee joint •plantarflex ankle joint (towards ground) •invert foot (sole faces medially) •flex toes (towards ground)
Innervation of the Posterior Compartment of the Leg
tibial nerve • Medial branch of the sciatic nerve • Travels between the superficial and deep muscle groups of the posterior compartment • Innervates the muscles of the posterior compartment of the leg • Innervates skin on posterolateral aspect of leg and lateral foot (via sural nerve) Eventually courses posterior to medial malleolus to enter the foot, where it divides into medial and lateral plantar nerves
Action of the Popliteus
Unlocks the knee from extended position (when knee is extended in standing position, popliteus rotates the femur laterally 5 degrees on the tibia, unlocking the knee so that flexion can occur)
Insertion of the Flexor digitorum longus (FDL)
tendon travels posterior to medial malleolus of tibia, divides into four tendons to insert on distal phalanges of digits 2-5
Insertion of the Flexor hallucis longus (FHL)
tendon travels posterior to medial malleolus of tibia and inserts on distal phalanx of hallux
Insertion of the Tibialis posterior
tendon travels posterior to medial malleolus of tibia and inserts primarily on the navicular tuberosity
Holds the Tendons of flexor digitorum longus, flexor hallucis longus, and tibialis posterior at the ankle
Tom, Dick, aNd Harry
the relative position (anterior, middle, & posterior) of the tendons of tibialis posterior (Tom), flexor digitorum longus (Dick), and flexor hallucis longus (Harry) as they travel posterior to the medial malleolus; the tibial nerve (and) lies between the tendons of FDL and FHL
Plantar Foot Skin
The sole of the foot is very thick (especially at weight-bearing parts of the foot like the heel, lateral margin, and base of the hallux)
Plantar Foot superficial fascia
has fibrous septa dividing the tissue into fat-filled areas for shock absorption (especially prominent calcaneal fat pad); the fibrous septa also anchor the skin to the deep fascia (improves grip)
Plantar Foot deep fascia
The thickened central portion is called the plantar aponeurosis Functions: protection, maintaining arches/integrity of foot
Inflammation of the plantar aponeurosis that presents as pain on the plantar surface of the heel and medial aspect of foot; it can induce ossification in the posterior attachment of the aponeurosis, forming a calcaneal spur; a bursa may develop at the spur and this may also become inflamed
Motor Medial plantar nerve
Innervates abductor hallucis, flexor hallucis brevis, 1st (medial) lumbrical, and flexor digitorum brevis
Sensory Medial plantar nerve
Innervates medial aspect of sole & tips and plantar aspects of medial 3 ½ digits
Motor Lateral plantar nerve
Innervates abductor digiti minimi, flexor digiti minimi, quadratus plantae, adductor hallucis, 2nd-4th lumbricals, all interossei
Sensory Lateral plantar nerve
Innervates lateral aspect of sole & tips and plantar aspects of lateral 1 ½ digits
Tendon of flexor hallucis longus
Runs deep to FDL tendon and along the medial side of the plantar foot. Sends tendinous slip(s) to the tendon of FDL.
Insertion of the Tendon of flexor hallucis longus
Travels between the two sesamoids of the hallux, to insert on the distal phalanx.
Tendon of flexor digitorum longus
Crosses superficial to FHL tendon and splits into 4 tendons (to digits 2-5).
Insertion of the Tendon of flexor digitorum longus
Each tendon passes through the divided tendon of flexor digitorum brevis to insert on the distal phalanx.
Innervation of Lumbricals
•Medial (1st) lumbrical (medial plantar n.) •Lateral 3 lumbricals (lateral plantar n.)
Each tendon (medial & lateral) has a this embedded in it. They provide added leverage, help hold the tendon of FHL in place, & protect the tendon of FHL from fraying/pressure during toe-off
Anterior tibial artery
• Passes through gap in superior part of the interosseous membrane • Supplies anterolateral leg
Posterior tibial artery
• Travels with tibial nerve, between superficial & deep muscle groups • Supplies posterior leg • Gives off fibular artery, which supplies posterolateral leg (including lateral compartment) • Posterior tibial artery travels posterior to medial malleolus, between tendons of FDL and FHL ("Tom, Dick, And Harry"), deep to flexor retinaculum (can palpate the posterior tibial pulse here) • Divides into medial and lateral plantar arteries in the sole
gives off lateral malleolar and calcaneal branches (form anastomoses around ankle joint)
Medial plantar artery
• Travels with medial plantar nerve • Gives rise to superficial plantar arch (superficial to flexor digitorum brevis) • Gives rise to plantar digital arteries to hallux and medial side of digit 2 (anastomose with branches from the lateral plantar artery) • Supplies superficial tissues of sole and muscles associated with the hallux
Lateral plantar artery
• Travels with lateral plantar nerve • Supplies most of the plantar foot • Gives rise to deep plantar arch (between 3rd & 4th plantar layers) • Deep plantar arch gives rise to plantar metatarsal arteries • Plantar metatarsal arteries give rise to plantar digital arteries to the medial and lateral aspects of the digits (anastomose with branches from medial plantar artery)
Veins of the Posterior Leg and Plantar Foot
• Deep veins accompany the arteries and share the same names
Please allow access to your computer’s microphone to use Voice Recording.
Having trouble? Click here for help.
We can’t access your microphone!
Click the icon above to update your browser permissions and try again
Reload the page to try again!Reload
Press Cmd-0 to reset your zoom
Press Ctrl-0 to reset your zoom
It looks like your browser might be zoomed in or out. Your browser needs to be zoomed to a normal size to record audio.
Please upgrade Flash or install Chrome
to use Voice Recording.
For more help, see our troubleshooting page.
Your microphone is muted
For help fixing this issue, see this FAQ.
Star this term
You can study starred terms together