55 terms

APES Ch. 4,7&8 Test

STUDY
PLAY
Within a population and due to competition between individuals, those individuals with an advantage will survive to pass their genes on to the next generation. This idea is called
Natural Selection
Which of the following is not a condition necessary for biological evolution to occur?
Reproduction must be asexual
Any heritable trait that enables an organism to survive through natural selection and reproduce better under prevailing environmental conditions is called
adaptation
Coevolution can involve the interaction of
ALL OF THE ANSWERS: plants and herbivores, pollinators and flowers, parasites and hosts, plant roots and fungi
Over the course of time, the change in the gene pool of one species may lead to the change of the gene pool of another species. This process is called
coevolution
The movement of tectonic plates influences evolution by
changing the locations of continents, causing some species to be geographically isolated from others
An organism's niche is analogous to its
way of life
A hummingbird would be considered a specialist species because
it can only eat one certain type of food
Geographic isolation may result from
ALL OF THE ANSWERS: a volcanic eruption, an earthquake, a mountain range, a river
What does species richness refer to?
the number of different species
What does species evenness refer to?
the number of individuals of each species
Where is most of the world's biodiversity?
low-latitude forests
Species that normally live and thrive in a particular ecosystem are known as
native species
Species that serve as early warnings of environmental damage are called
indicator species
Species whose roles in an ecosystem are much more important than their abundance would suggest are called
keystone species
Species that migrate or are accidentally introduced into an ecosystem are called
nonnative species
Which term means the opposite of the others? Exotic species, native species, alien species, nonnative species, or generalist species.
nonnative species
Birds and trout make good
indicator species
Wild African bees are best described as
nonnative species
Sea otters, dung beetles, and gopher tortoises are generally considered to be
keystone species
Which of the following statements is false?
Interspecific competition is competition between two members of the same species
The relationship between fire ants and native ant populations is best described as
interspecific competition
The obvious relationship demonstrated by a food chain is
predation
Prey are least likely to defend themselves against predators by
pursuit and ambush
A relationship in which one species benefits while the other is neither helped nor harmed to any significant degree is best labeled
commensalism
A relationship in which both species benefit is best labeled
mutualism
Of the following relationships, the one most likely to be described as a positive feedback loop is
mutualism
Which of the following statements about primary succession is false?
It is an orderly progression from pioneer species to climax species indicative of the region being studied.
How long does it take natural processes to produce fertile soil?
several centuries to several thousands of years
Which of the following would exhibit primary succession?
rock exposed by a retreating glacier
Which of the following would undergo secondary succession?
a heavily polluted stream that has been cleaned up
Ecologists would consider all of the following to be natural disturbances except
deforestation
The ability of a living system to resist change is an defined as
inertia
A sea otter is a(an)
keystone species
The changes in population size, density, dispersion, and age structure are known as
population dynamics
The most common pattern of population dispersion found in nature is
clumped
Which of the following is not a reason why organisms tend to live in clumps?
intraspecific competition decreases when living in a group
Emigration
is one-way movement of individuals out of a particular population to another area
The biotic potential of a population
is the maximum reproductive rate of a population
The intrinsic rate of increase (r)
is the rate at which a population would grow if it had unlimited resources
A single factor that limits the growth, abundance, or distribution of a species in an ecosystem is called
a limiting factor
Environmental resistance is enhanced by
a specialized niche
Carrying capacity refers to
the maximum size of population the environment will support
A logistic growth curve depicting a population that is limited by a definite carrying capacity is shaped like the letter
S
An exponential growth curve depicting an ever-growing population is shaped like the letter
J
A population crash occurs when
a population overshoots carrying capacity and environmental pressures cause effects
Density-dependent population controls include all of the following except
human destruction of habitat
Density-independent population controls include all of the following except
resource competition
Which of the following terms best describes the type of population change you would expect to find for a muskrat population in a state that has just outlawed trapping?
irruptive
Which of the following patterns would you expect to find for rabbits and coyotes in an undisturbed habitat?
cyclic
An r-strategist generally
is small and short-lived
K-strategists
are generally less adaptable to change than r-strategists
Which of the following best describes the survivorship curve you would expect to find for a mountain gorilla?
late loss
Which of the following best describes the survivorship curve you would expect to find for a fish?
early loss
Which of the following connections among population cycle, survival strategies, and survivorship curves would you most expect to see?
boom-and-bust; r-strategist; early-loss