7.2 Vocabulary Animal Biology
Terms in this set (27)
A microscopic, dark-staining body, visible in the nucleus of the cell at the time of nuclear division, which carries the genes, arranged in linear order.
A kind of gene action where one allele does not exhibit complete dominance over the other.
Pairing of genes where one gene completely masks the other's existence.
A group of animals that are of the same breed and sex and have been raised in the same management group; e.g., same location in the same feed and pasture. Individual animals can then be accurately compared to others in the group.
A gene that prevents its allele from having a phenotypic effect.
Number that expresses both genetic and economic factors to select animals for economic merit.
Non-genetic factors that influence quantitative genetic trait expression.
Proportion of times a given genotype occurs or can occur.
The simplest unit of inheritance. Physically, each gene is apparently a nucleic acid with a unique structure. It influences certain traits.
Study of exact genes that control quantitative genetic traits.
The genetic constitution, or genetic makeup, expressed and latent of an organism. Individuals of the same genotype breed alike.
The proportion of the differences among animals, measured or observed, that is transmitted to the offspring. Heritability varies from zero to one. The higher the heritability of a trait, the more accurately does the individual performance predict breeding value and the more rapid should be the response due to selection for that trait.
An animal that carries genes for two different characteristics.
Possessing identical genes with respect to any given pair or series of alleles.
A system for comparing animals within a herd, or area, based on the average of the group; usually the figure 100 is used for an average index; animals receiving an index of 100 or over are the top end while those indexing less than 100 are the bottom end.
The transmission of genetic factors from parent to offspring.
A gene that can cause the death of an individual when it is allowed to express itself.
The observed character of an individual without reference to its genetic nature. Individuals of the same phenotype look alike but may not breed alike.
Designating animals that normally do not develop horns.
The likelihood or chance that a given event will occur.
The offspring of animals or plants
A model used to establish the probabilities of the results of a genetic cross.
Traits having a sharp distinction between phenotypes, and which are usually controlled by only a few genes; e.g., various coat colors and the horned trait in domestic animals.
Traits that do not have a sharp distinction between phenotypes, and usually require some kind of measuring tools to make the distinctions. These traits are normally controlled by many pairs of genes; e.g., growth rate, milk production, and carcass quality.
Performance of an animal compared with its contemporaries with 100 being average. Ratios greater than 100 are above average, and less than 100 are below average.
In genetics, a gene or trait that is masked by a dominant gene.
Any observable feature or characteristic of an animal.
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