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APUSH Chapter 29
Terms in this set (40)
henry demarest lloyd
In 1881, he published "Story of a Great Monopoly," an exposé of the railroads and Standard Oil, in
the pages of the Atlantic Monthly; charged headlong into the Standard Oil Company with his book Wealth Against
Commonwealth in 1894
assailed the new rich with his prickly pen in The Theory of the Leisure Class (1899), a savage attack on
"predatory wealth" and "conspicuous consumption."
a reporter for the New York Sun, shocked middle-class Americans in 1890 with How the Other Half Lives. His
account was a damning indictment of the dirt, disease, vice, and misery of the rat-gnawed human rookeries known as New York slums. The book deeply influenced a future New York City police commissioner, Theodore Roosevelt
a novelist that used his blunt prose to batter promoters and profiteers in The Financier (1912) and The Titan (1914)
bright young reporters, whom President Roosevelt gave them their nickname in 1906. Annoyed by their excess of zeal, he compared the mudslinging magazine dirt-diggers to the figure in Bunyan's Pilgrim's Progress who was so intent on raking manure that he could not see the celestial crown dangling overhead.
In 1902 the brilliant New York reporter that launched a series of articles in McClure's titled "The Shame
of the Cities." He fearlessly unmasked the corrupt alliance between big business and municipal government.
ida m tarbell
pioneering journalist who published a devastating but factual exposé of the Standard Oil Company. (Her
father had been ruined by the oil interests.)
ray stannard baker
The sorry subjugation of America's 9 million blacks—of whom 90% still lived in the South and one third were illiterate—was spotlighted in his book Following the Color Line (1908).
voters could directly propose legislation themselves, thus bypassing the boss-bought state legislatures
This device would place laws on the ballot for final approval by the people, especially laws that had been
railroaded through a compliant legislature by free-spending agents of big business.
would enable the voters to remove faithless elected officials, particularly those who had been bribed by bosses or
approved in 1913, established the direct election of U.S. senators.
the commission plan, a city's government would be divided into several departments, which would each be
placed under the control of an expert commissioner. These progressives argued that a board of commissioners or a city
manager with expertise in city services should hire the specialists to run city departments. It was created after a massive hurricane devastated this city in Texas on September 8, 1900.
Robert M. ("Fighting Bob") La Follette
serving his home state of Wisconsin first as a congressman (1884-1890), then a governor (1900-1906), and finally a senator (1906-1925). He won the support of farmers and workers with his fiery attacks
on big business and the railroads. While governor, he brought about reforms such as improving the civil service. He used his
office to attack the way political parties ran their conventions. Because party bosses controlled the selection of convention
delegates, they also controlled which candidates were chosen to run for office. He pressured the state legislature to require
each party to hold a direct primary, in which all party members could vote for a candidate to run in the general election
Elected Republican governor in 1910 in California, this dynamic prosecutor of grafters helped break the dominant grip of the Southern Pacific Railroad on California politics and set up a political machine of his own. During his two
terms, he passed several important measures, including those involving initiatives, referenda, and recall
charles evans hughes
the able and audacious reformist Republican governor of New York elected in 1906, had earlier gained national fame as an investigator of malpractices by gas and insurance companies and by the coal trust. He was then
appointed to the Supreme Court by President William Howard Taft, a position from which he resigned in the summer of 1916
to run for President against incumbent Woodrow Wilson as the candidate of the Republican Party
a former resident of Jane Addams's Hull House, became the state of Illinois's 1st chief factory inspector
and one of the nation's leading advocates for improved factory conditions. In 1899 she took control of the newly founded
National Consumers League, which mobilized female consumers to pressure for laws safeguarding women and children in the workplace
muller v. oregon
In 1903, Oregon passed a law that said that women could work no more than 10 hours a day in factories
and laundries. A woman at Muller's laundry was required to work more than 10 hours. Hans Curt Muller, the owner of the Grand Laundry, was convicted of violating the law. His appeal eventually was heard to the U.S. Supreme Court. By a 9-0 vote, the justices upheld the Oregon law.
louis d. brandeis
was the first Jew to sit on the U.S. Supreme Court. He graduated from Harvard Law School at the age of
20, and quickly became known as "the people's lawyer" for fighting for workers' rights and breaking up monopolies. President
Woodrow Wilson appointed him to the Supreme Court in 1916, and his decisions affirmed individual liberty and opposed
unchecked governmental power. He persuaded the Supreme Court to accept the constitutionality of laws protecting women
workers by presenting evidence of the harmful effects of factory labor on women's weaker bodies
lochner v. new york
The state of New York enacted a statute forbidding bakers to work more than 60 hours a week or 10 hours a day. Baker owner Lochner claimed the law violated is 14th Amendment due process rights by depriving him of his freedom to make contracts with his employees. The Supreme Court ruled that a New York law setting maximum working hours for bakers was unconstitutional.
triangle shirtwaist company
On March 25, 1911, fire broke out in this factory in New York City. The factory had no fire escapes, and managers routinely locked all doors to prevent workers from leaving the factory floor for breaks. 146 workers, most of them young immigrant women, were incinerated or leapt from 8th- and 9th-story windows to their deaths. The subsequent public outrage led to the growth of the International Ladies Garment Workers Union (founded in 1900) and increased government regulation of industrial working conditions.
francis e. willard
who would fall to her knees in prayer on saloon floors, mobilized nearly 1 million women to "make the world homelike" and built the WCTU into the largest organization of women in the world.
woman's christian temperance union
founded in November 1874 in Cleveland, Ohio. By 1879, it became one of the largest and most influential women's groups of the 19th century by expanding its platform to campaign for labor laws, prison reform and suffrage. In 1898, the WCTU began to distance itself from feminist groups, instead focusing primarily on
defined "intoxicating liquors" excluding those used for religious purposes and sales throughout the U.S.,
established Prohibition in the United States. Its ratification was certified on January 16, 1919. It was repealed by the Twentyfirst
Amendment in 1933, the only instance of an amendment's repeal
was the leader of national progressivism at the turn of the twentieth century. He supported regulation
of big business, conservation of natural resources, and a "square deal" for ordinary people. He greatly expanded the role and authority of the presidency in the national government.
President Theodore Roosevelt's domestic program formed upon three basic ideas: conservation of natural
resources, control of corporations, and consumer protection. Thus, it aimed at helping middle class citizens and involved
attacking plutocracy and bad trusts while at the same time protecting business from the extreme demands of organized labor
anthracite coal strike 1902
a strike by the United Mine Workers of America in the anthracite coal fields of eastern Pennsylvania. The strike threatened to shut down the winter fuel supply to all major cities (homes and apartments were heated with anthracite or "hard" coal because it had higher heat value and less smoke than "soft" or bituminous coal). President
Theodore Roosevelt became involved and set up a fact-finding commission that suspended the strike. The strike never
resumed, as the miners received more pay for fewer hours; the owners got a higher price for coal, and did not recognize the
trade union as a bargaining agent. It was the first labor episode in which the federal government intervened as a neutral
department of commerce
department of the United States government concerned with promoting economic growth. It
was originally created as the United States Department of Commerce and Labor on February 14, 1903. It was subsequently
renamed to the Department of Commerce on March 4, 1913, and its bureaus and agencies specializing in labor were transferred to the new Department of Labor.
bureau of corporations
Established during Theodore Roosevelt's first administration, it was granted the power to investigate unfair business practices in interstate commerce
elkins act of 1903
United States federal law that amended the Interstate Commerce Act of 1887. It authorized the Interstate Commerce Commission to impose heavy fines on railroads that offered rebates, and upon the shippers that accepted these rebates
Hepburn act of 1906
United States federal law that gave the Interstate Commerce Commission (ICC) the power to set
maximum railroad rates. This led to the discontinuation of free passes to loyal shippers.
"good trusts/bad trusts"
determined to respond to the popular outcry against the trusts but also determined not to throw out something valuable with something unwanted by smashing all large businesses
northern securities case
an important United States railroad trust formed in 1902 by E. H. Harriman, James J. Hill, J.P. Morgan, J. D. Rockefeller, and their associates. The company controlled the Northern Pacific Railway, Great Northern Railway, Chicago, Burlington and Quincy Railroad, and other associated lines. The company was sued in 1902 under the Sherman Antitrust Act of 1890 by President Theodore Roosevelt, one of the first anti-trust cases filed against corporate
interests instead of labor
he wrote "The Jungle" and he revealed the horrific conditions of the local meat-packing factories. He was
determined to shine some light and demanded better working conditions for these local factories.
a novel published by Upton Sinclair and stated how the meat-packing factories ran things. This includes meat being put on dirty floors, the crates being disgustingly dirty as the workers placed meat into the crates.
meat inspection act
an act passed in 1906 that required a full inspection of all the meat-packing industries. This included checking the cows, pigs, and the other meat-sources to make sure that it was all in order and everything was sanitized.
pure food and drug act
an act passed in 1906 that also had meat thoroughly inspected by the federal government. It also
stopped the production, selling, and the movement of drugs
desert lands act
an act passed in 1877 that made compromises to buyers of the dry, arid land. In exchange for the 640
acres of land, the buyers agreed to pay $1.25 per acre and they also promised to irrigate the land they bought
forest reserve act
it was passed in 1891 by Congress while under Harrison was in office. it gave the U.S. President the
power to take areas of land from the forest reserves from the land of the public domain
it was passed in 1902 during the irrigation "phase" America was going through. This act helped fund the
local irrigation projects for 20 states in the American West that had the arid lands
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