Maya, Aztec and Africa Review
Terms in this set (50)
These floating gardens were built by the Aztecs to allow for increased farming in marshy lands. These miracles of agriculture increased food production.
The Aztec god of the sun and war required nourishment, required human sacrifice. Sacrificial victims had their hearts ripped out. The god needed nourishment.
Reason for Aztec Human Sacrifice
To maintain the cosmic order and to prevent the world from being plunged into darkness, it had to occur. Only human blood could nourish the sun. Every day it needed nourishment to rise.
It was the capital of the Aztec Empire, located on an island in Lake Texcoco. It had a population of between 100,000 and 200,000. It was a vibrant city with commercial activity.
They are raised roads across water or wet ground. They were built by the Aztecs to connect their island capital to the mainland.
Bringing buyers and sellers together to exchange goods, the Aztecs had many of them. When the Spaniards arrived, they even noted that almost any good could be purchased in these Aztec places of exchange.
Eagle on a cactus with a snake in its mouth
The Aztecs were originally nomadic warriors from northern Mexico but they migrated south to central Mexico. A prophecy told them to look for this. When they found this, they would know where to build their capital.
It was this tribe or ethnic group that eventually became the leaders of the Aztec empire. It is interesting to note that this name still influences the region today.
Religious ceremonies and human sacrifices took place at the tops of these magnificent structures. The bodies of the sacrificial victims would be thrown down the steps of these buildings. Each one was a temple dedicated to one of the Aztec gods, and the sacrifices made in that temple would be offered up to that god.
It was here that the capital city of the ancient Aztecs, Tenochtitlan, was built. It was located in central Mexico.
It was the second largest city in the Aztec Empire after Tenotchtitlan. It was home to the markets of the Aztec Empire. It was the economic and trading center of the empire.
They worshipped many gods and were polytheistic but they especially worshipped the sun. Gold was considered the "sweat of the sun". Human sacrifice was performed to ensure the rising of the sun each day.
Aztec Triple Alliance
It was formed by three cities, Tenochtitlan, Tiacopan, and Tetzcoco. It was created to ensure military dominance of central Mexico.
It is a geographic region in the western hemisphere that was home to Mayan and Aztec civilizations. It includes Mexico and much of Central America.
This is an accurate description of the Aztec social class system. The emperor had absolute power and was at the top of the ranking system. Priests and nobles lived luxurious lives. Commoners and slaves had low status.
It was not unified. It was fragment. Each city had its own king and surrounding territory. Sometimes rivalries developed.
It often consists of valuable goods given to a more powerful military kingdom to prevent conquest or to prevent further destruction. The Mongols collected it and the Aztecs collected it too. In the Aztec Empire, it sometimes included sacrificial victims.
DId Not Assimilate Conquered Subjects
Like the Mongols, the Aztecs were interested in the collection of tribute. They were not interested in this or changing the cultures of conquered peoples. People could worship as they pleased as long as they paid the tribute.
It was the largest and most important Mayan city. It was located in the northern part of Guatemala. It had an impressive population of 50,000 people.
Mathematics and the Maya
They invented the concept of zero and used a number system. They were the only indigenous peoples in the Americas to develop the concept of zero. Only the Gupta developed this concept independently too.
The Maya were the only indigenous peoples in the Americas to develop a full one in the Americas. In Europe, Asia and Africa, all of these were influenced by Sumerian cuneiform but the Maya invented it themselves.
It was practiced by the Maya with the belief that such sacrifices would please the gods who, in turn, would send rain to sustain agriculture. It was the shedding of blood as an offering to the gods. It often involved cutting the skin.
The Maya and the Ball Court
They played this game to ensure the cosmic order was stable. Winners would be glorified and losers killed. The hoop was quite high off the ground and no hands were used but it was essential to ensure the world continued and the people were safe.
What the Aztecs believed was proof of the importance of human sacrifice
There was a terrible drought. The people were starving. Human blood was provided as religious ritual. The rains came and the sacrifices increased.
Priests atop pyramids studied the night sky. They concluded how many days it took for the planet Venus to rotate around the sun. They were accurate.
It was solar and consisted of 365.242 days. It was almost perfect. It was only incorrect by a few seconds. It is further evidence of how advanced the Maya were.
This is what happened in Mayan cities around 900 A.D. It is not clear why they left their cities. It may have been increased warfare but more likely, it was environmental catastrophe.
Geography of Maya City States
Located in southern Mexico and Guatemala, it consisted of highlands and lowlands and lots of steamy jungles. It was a difficult environment to farm in.
Certainly, maize was an important crop. They most certainly had to use slash-and-burn agriculture (known as Milpa) in the rainforest. They sometimes used terrace farming as well as raised field farming. They were very advanced.
They worshipped many gods, each representing a different area of life. They tried to keep gods happy by giving blood and human sacrifices. They believed in legend of Quetzalcoatl (the god who would return to rule people in peace).
It was a manuscript book created by the Maya on bark. It contained important ideas and legends of the Maya.
It was a Mayan codex. In this codex, the creation myth of the Maya was written. It taught that the gods had created humans out of maize and water, the ingredients that became human flesh and blood.
It was a city located on the Niger River in the modern country of Mali. It was founded by the Tuareg as a seasonal camp sometime after 1000. As part of the Mali empire, it became a major terminus of the trans-Saharan trade and a center of Islamic learning.
He was a Moroccan Muslim scholar and the most widely traveled individual of his time. He wrote a detailed account of his visits to Islamic lands from China to Spain and the western Sudan.
He is often compared to Ibn Battuta. He was a great traveler and traveled the entire length of the Silk Roads. He worked in the court of Kublai Khan and his travels were recorded. He greatly influenced Christopher Columbus. The book about his travels became Columbus' favorite book.
He was the ruler of the West African Kingdom of Mali. He took a famous pilgrimage to Mecca. He gave away so much gold on his journey that the value of gold dropped in Egypt for nearly twenty years.
He was the founder of the Mali Empire. He was the Lion King. He had been born disabled but overcame his disability to become a mighty warrior and a powerful king.
It is the holy book of Islam. Muslims believe it is the word of Allah or God. It was greatly valued in West Africa as many West Africans converted to Islam.
It was what happened to a child in Mali who did not memorize his Quran. He would be kept in these until he memorized it. This was noted by Ibn Battuta who was impressed with their piety.
It was a trade across the Sahara that connected North Africa and West Africa. North African nomads carried salt and other goods to West Africa in exchange for West African gold. It was an important and profitable trade.
It was introduced to Africa from Arabia and it greatly facilitated trade on the Trans-Saharan trade routes. It was able to travel ten days without water.
How Islam Spread in Africa
It traveled with merchants; it traveled on trade routes. It was voluntarily embraced. As nomads from the North shared their wares, they also shared their ideas. Many West Africans adopted these ideas.
It was a language that developed in East Africa. It is an example of syncretism or cultural blending. It was influenced by Bantu and Arabic. As East Africa was part of Indian Ocean Trade, it was almost inevitable that East Africans and Arabs would exchange ideas.
Indian Ocean Trade
It connected East Africa, Arabia, India and Southeast Asia. Monsoons facilitated it. It led to diffusion and syncretism.
It was a great kingdom and the name of that great kingdom's greatest city. The city was a stone-walled enclosure found in Southeast Africa. It had gold and farming. It built massive walls to show its wealth.
He was the first powerful ruler of the Songhai empire. He was a Muslim but he maintained some animist practices. This angered a future leader of Songhai, Askia Muhammad.
It was called the land of gold
Ghana, the first powerful West African kingdom, was known as this but it did not actually control the gold fields. Instead Ghana taxed all trade in the region thereby gaining wealth and power.
The Niger River
It was very important in West Africa. It was often near its shores that Trans-Saharan trade was conducted. It was usually a silent trade where merchants would leave their wares for others to see and bid on.
It was a port and city in East Africa. It was one of the Swahili city-states. It was directly involved in Indian Ocean Trade. Persian merchants sometimes settled there.
It is that portion of the African continent that is south of the Sahara desert. Most of Africa is this. The Sahara was a barrier but not a complete barrier. Traders crossed it. Nonetheless, this part of Africa did not have much contact with Europeans until the 1500s and more profoundly and negatively in the 1800s.
YOU MIGHT ALSO LIKE...
Chapter 8: Early Civilizations in Africa
Chapter 8 Early Civilizations in Africa
History Ch. 16
Chapter 15 Ancient History
OTHER SETS BY THIS CREATOR
Byzantine, Mongol, Abbasid, Tang and Song Review
First Unit Global History and Geography I
Reflection - Global I
Global I Review for Unit Ten
THIS SET IS OFTEN IN FOLDERS WITH...
The Essential Anchor Dates
Let's Practice A Bit of WHAP
The Classical Civilizations
The Expansion Review - Alexander, Bantu, Islam