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193 terms

Biology Jeppson first semester

STUDY
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Adenosine Triphosphate
compound used by cells to store and release energy
autotroph
organism that is able to compose energy from sunligth or chemicals and use it to produce it's own food from inorganic compounds: also called a producer
heterotsoph
organism that obtains food by consuming others living things:also called a consumer
photosynthesis
process used by plants and other autorophs to capture light energy and use it to power chemical reactions that convert carbon dioxide and water into oxxygen and energy rich carbohydrates?
pigment
light absorbing molecule used by plants to gather the sun's energy
light dependent semctions
set of ceactions in photosythesis that do not reprice??? can't read
chlorophyll
principal pigment of plants and other photosynthetic organisms
reactions
elements compounds that enter into a chemical senction?
thylakoid
saclike photosynthetic membranes found in chloroplasts
light independent reactions
set of reactions in photosynthesis that do not require light energy from ATP and NADPD is used to build hight energy compounds such as sugus, also called the Caliycycle
stroma
fluid postion of the chlorplasta outside of the thylakoids
NADP or NADD ?
nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate carrier molecule that transfers high energy eletrons from chlorophyll to other molecules
photosystem
cluster of chlorophyll and proteins found in thylakoids
ATD synthase
cluster of proteins that span the cell memebrane and allow gydroen ions(H+) to pass through it
electron transport chain
series of electron carrier proteins that shuttle high energy electrons dasing ATP generating reactions?
calvin cycle
light independent reactions of photosynthesis in which enery from ATp AND nadph IS USED TO BUILD THIGH ENERGY COMPOUNDS SUCH AS SUGARS
Cell
smallest unit that can perform all the life processes
cell theory
principle that states all organisms are made of one or more cells that arise from other cells
eukaryote
organism whose cells have a nucleus enclosed by a membrane
prokaryote
sinle celled organism without a nucleus bacterial cell
lysosome
organelle in a eukaryotic cell that contains digestive enzymes
endoplasmic reticulum
cell membranes in the cytoplasm that transport substances made by the cell
chloroplast
organelle that uses light energy to make carbohydrates from carbon dioxide and water
ribosome
organelle on whick proteins are made
diffusion
random movement of particles from an area of high concentration to an area of lower concentration
facilitated diffusion
transport of substances through a cell membrane down a concentration radient aided by carrier proteins
which kingdoms of life include eukaryotic cells
animals plant
what is active transport
energy (A+P) is used to move material into or out of cell
why would a cell do endocytosis
movement of cell membrane to be in glorge? molecules in
why would a cell do exocytosis
movement of cell membrane to move molecules out
biology
science of life
cellular respirtion
process by which living organism harvest the energy in food molecules
fermentatrion
anaerobic process of cellular respiration that recycles ND + needed to continue glycolysis
How is enery released from ATP
Breaking the bonds betwee its phosphate energy?
What is an aerobic process
requires oxyen
What is an anaerobic process
doesn't require oxygen
Where does glycolysis take place
cytoplasm
Where does respiration take place
mitocondrea
Where does fermentation take place
cytoplasm of cells
How much ATP is produced for every 1 glucose during Glycolysis
2 0r 4
How much ATP is produced for every 1 glucose during Krebs cycle
1
How much ATP is produced fro every 1 glucose during Fermentation
none
How much ATP is produced for every 1 glucose during Aerobic Cellular Respiration
up to 36
How much ATP is produced for every 1 glucose during Anaerobic Respirationq
2
In what order dows cellular respiration occur
Glycolysis, Krebs Cycle Electron Transport
What is the starting molecule(s) of Glycolysis
Glucose
What is the starting molecule(s) of Krebs cycle
Phsuvic acid
What is the starting molecule(s) of Electron Transport chain
NADH, FADH2
What is the starting molecule(s) of Fermentation
Pyruvcacid ? (hard to read)
what is the ending product(s) of Glycolusis
Dysnic Acid 2ArD
What is the ending product(s) of Krebs cycle
3NADH, FADH2
What is the ending product(s) of Electron Transport chain
H2O
What is the ending product(s) of LacticAcid Fermentation
Lactic Acid
What is the ending procuct(s) of Alcoholic Fermentation
Ethyl Alcohol
What are NADH and FADH2 used for in Electron Transport chain
energy, to start it
Where do NADH and FADHc in electron Transport chain come from
Krebs cycle
science
organized way of gathering and analyzing evidence about the natural world
observation
process of noticing and describing events or processes in a careful ordely way
inference
a logical interpretation based on prior knowlede and experience
hypothesis
possible explanation for a set of observations or possibel answer to a scientific question
controlled experiment
experiment in which only one virable is changed
independent variable
factor in a controlled experiment that is deliberately changed also called manipulated variable
dependent variable
variable that is observed and that changes in response to the independent variable also called the responding varable
control group
group in an experiment that is exposed to the same conditions as the experiment group except for the independent variable
data
evidence information gathered for observation
theory
well tested explanation that unifies a broad range of observation and hypothesis and enables scientists to make accurate predications about new situations
bias
pasticular prefecence or point of view that is personal rather than scientific
biology
scientific study of life
DNA
a genetic code written in a molecule
stimulus
signal to whick an organism responds
sex reproduction
type of reproduction in whick cells from two parents unit to form the first cell of a new organism
asexual reprodution
process of reproduction involving a sinle parent that results in offsprin that are genetically identical to the parent
homeostasis
relatively constant internal pysical and chemical conditions that organisms maintain
metabolism
the conbination of chemical reactionsthough which an organism builds up or breaks down materials
biosphere
part of the earth in which life exists includin land, water, and air or atomoshere
element
pure substance that consists entirely of one type of atom
compound
substance forced by the chemical combination of two or more elements in definit propotions
ionic Bond
chemical bond formed when one or more elections are transfered from one atom to another
Ion
atom that has an positve or negative charged
covalen Bond
type of bond between atoms in which the electrons are shared
molecule
smallest unit of most compounds that display all the properties of that compound
hydsogen ? bond
weak attraction between a hydrogen atom and another atom
cohesion
attraction between molecules of the same substance
adhesion
force of attraction between different kinds of molecules
PH scale
scale with values from 0 to `14 used to measure the concontration of H+ ions in solution a PH of 0 to 7 is acidic a ph of 7 is neutral and a ph of 7 to 14 is basic
acid
compound that forms hydsogan ions (H+) in solution a solution with a ph of less than 7
Base
compound that produces hydsoxice ions(OH-) in solution solution with a ph of more than 7
carbohydrate
compound made up of carbon hydrogen and oxygen atoms type of nultrient that is the major source of energy for the body
lipid
macromolecules made mostly from carbon and hydrogen atoms includes fats oil and waater
nucleic acid
macromoleculs containing hydrogen oxygen nitrogen carbon and phosphorus
protein
macromoleculs that contain carbon hydrogen oxyen and nitrogen needed by the body for rowth and repair
amino acid
compound with an amino group on one end and an carbonyl group on the other end
chemical reactions
process that changes or transforms one set of chemical into another set of chemicals
reactant
elements or compounds that enters info a chemical reaction
product
elements or compound produced by a chemical reaction
activation energy
energy that is needed to get a reaction started
catulyst
substance that speeds up the rate of a chemical reaction
enzyme
protein catalyst that speed up the rate of a specific biological reactions
substrate
reactionof an enzyme catalyzedd reaction?
biotic factor
any living part of the environment with whick an oranizm might interact
abiotic factor
physical or nonliving factor that shapes an ecosystem
primary produces
first produces of energy rich? compounds that are later used by other organisms
consumer
organism that relies on another organisms for its energy and food supply also called hetesotraph?
autotroph
organism that is able to capture energy from sunlight or chemicals and use it to produce its own food from inorganic compound also called a producer
hetesotroph
organism that obtains food by consuming other living thins also called a consumer
photosynthesis
process used by plants and other autotrophs to capture light energy and used it to power chemical reactions that can vert carbon dioxide and water into oxygen and energy rich carbohydrates
chemosyn thesis
process in which chemical energy is used to produce carbohydrates
trophic level
each stip in a food chain or food web
ecological pyromid
illustration of the relative amounts of energy or matter contined within each trophic level in a given food chain or web
biomass
total amount of living tissue within a given tsophic level
tolerance
ability of an oranism to survive and reproduce under circumstnaces that differ from their optimal conditions
habitat
area where an organism including the biotic and abiotic factors that affect it
niche
full range of physical and biological conditions in which an organism lives and the way in which the organism thoes? conditions
competitive exclusion pronciple
principle that states that no two species can occupy the same niche in the same habitat at the same time
predation
interaction in which one organism (the predntor)captures and feeds on another organims(the prey)
keystone species
single species that is not usually abundant in a community yet exerts strong control on the structure of a community
symbiosis
relationship in which tow species live close together
mutualism
symbiotic relationship in which both species benefit the relationship
parasitism
symbiotic relationship in which one organism lives on or inside another organism and harms it
commensalism
symbiotic relationship in which one organism benefits and the other is neither help or harm
ecological succession
series of gradual changes that occor in a comminity following a disturbance
primary succession
succesion that occurs in an area in which no trace of a provious community is present
pioneer species
first species to populate an area during succession
secondary succession
type of growth indicats in which the stems increase in thickness
population density
number of individual per unit area
immigration
movement of individuals into an area occupied by an existing population
emigration
movement of individuals out of an area
exponential growth
growth pattern in which the individuals in a population reproduce at a consistent rate
logistic growth
growth pattern in which a populations growth slows and then stops following a period of exponential growth
carsy capacity???
largest number of individuals of a particular species that a paricular environment can support
limiting factor
factor that causes population growth to decrease
density dependent
limiting factor that depends on population density
dinsity independent limiting factor
limiting factor that affects all population in similar ways regardiless of the population density
monoculture
forming strategy of planting a single highly productive crop year after year
sustainble development
strategy focusing nutural resources without deplefing???? them and for providing human nees without causing long term environment harm
desertification
lower land praductivity caused by overfarming overgrazing seasonal drought and climate change
deforestation
destruction of forests
pollutant
harmful material that can enter the biosphere through the land air or water
biological magnification
the increasing concentration of a harmbul substance in organisms at higher hrophic? levels in a food chain or food web
biodiversity
the total of the variety of organisms in the biosphere also called biological diversity
ecosystem diversit
variety of habitats communities and ecological processesin the biophere
species diversity
number of different species that make up a particular see??
genetic diversity
sum total of all the different forms of genetic informationcarried by a particular pieces or by organisms on Earth
habitat fragmentation
splitting of ecosystems into pieces
ecological footpoint?
total amount of functioning ecosystem need to both provide the resources and human population uses and to absorbe the waters that population generates
What are the three subatomic particles
protons neutrons electrons
Protrons charge
positive
neutrons charge
negative
electrons charge
neutral
what does the atomic number tell you
the number of protons in the atom of an element
what does the mass number tell you
the protons and nutrons of an atom
what is an isotope
atoms of the same element that differs in the number neutrons they contain
what are two scientivic uses of radioactive isotopes
geologist determine age by analyzing the isotopes
What is H2O
compond? Should their be more???
What is acid ph
8-14
What is ph basic
1-6
What is ph neutral
7
What causes solutions to be acidic
president H+ ions
What causes solutions to be basic
OH- ions
What are monomers
smallest unit that make up a polymer
What happens to atoms and bonds in chemical reactions
they are rearranged
What is the relationshipbetween catalysts and enzymes
an enzymes is a type of catalysts they both speed up chemical reaction
What can affect enzyme activity in living things
ph tempture oregulare molecules?????
choestion
sticks to each other
playte
a water molucule is both part positve and parcity negitive
calorie
amount of energy needed to raise the temerature of 1 gram of water by 1 degree C
cellular respiration
process that releases energy by breaking down glucose and other food molecules in the presence of exygen
aerobic
process that requires oxygen
anuerobic
process that does not require oxygen
glycolysis
first set of reactions in cellular respiratin is which molecule of glucose is boken into tow molicules of pyruvic acid
NAD+
electron carrier involved within glycolysis
Krebs cycles
second stage of cellulur respiration in which pyruns?? acid is broken down into carbon dioxide in a series of energy extracting reaction
matsix
innermost compartment of the mitochondsioa
fermentation
process by which cells release energy in the absence of oxygen
cell
basic unti of all forms of life
cell theory
funumental concept of biology that states that all living things are composed of cells that cells are the basic units of structure and function in living fthings and that new cells are prduced from existing cells
eukoryote
domain consisting of all organisms that have a sucleus include protists plants fungi and animals
prokaeyote
unicellular organisms that lack a nucleus
organelle
specialized structure that perform important cellular functions tihin a eukargotic cell
lysosome
cell organelle that breaks down lipids coarbohydrates and proteins into small molecules that can be used by the rest of the cell
centriole
otsucture???? in an animal cell that helps to orgainze cell division
ribosome
cell organelle consisting of RNA and protien found throughout the cytoplasm in a cell the sit of protein synthesis
endoplasmic reticulum
internal membrane system found in eukaryotic cells place where lipid components of the cellmembrane after assembled
golgi Apparatus
organelle in cells that modifies and packaes proteins and other materials from the endoplasmic reticulum for storage in the cell or release outside the cell
chlosoplast
organelle found in cells of plants and some other organisms that caputres the energy from the sunlight and converts it into energy
mitochondria
cell organclic??? that converts the chemical energy stroed in food into compund that are more convenient for cells to use
diffusion
process by which particles tend to move from an area where they are more concentrated to an area where they are lsess concentrated
faclitated diffusion
process of diffusion in which molecules pass across the membrane through cell membrane channels
osmotic pressure
pressure that must be applied to prevent movement osmotiv??? movement across a selectively prermeable membrane
organ
a group of tissure that work toghether to perform a closely related function
organ system
group of organs that work toghether to perform a specific function
receptor
an osin? a cell a specific protein to whose stage fits that of a specfic molecular messenger such as are hormone???
aquaposin?
water channel protein in a cell