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Adenosine Triphosphate

compound used by cells to store and release energy


organism that is able to compose energy from sunligth or chemicals and use it to produce it's own food from inorganic compounds: also called a producer


organism that obtains food by consuming others living things:also called a consumer


process used by plants and other autorophs to capture light energy and use it to power chemical reactions that convert carbon dioxide and water into oxxygen and energy rich carbohydrates?


light absorbing molecule used by plants to gather the sun's energy

light dependent semctions

set of ceactions in photosythesis that do not reprice??? can't read


principal pigment of plants and other photosynthetic organisms


elements compounds that enter into a chemical senction?


saclike photosynthetic membranes found in chloroplasts

light independent reactions

set of reactions in photosynthesis that do not require light energy from ATP and NADPD is used to build hight energy compounds such as sugus, also called the Caliycycle


fluid postion of the chlorplasta outside of the thylakoids


nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate carrier molecule that transfers high energy eletrons from chlorophyll to other molecules


cluster of chlorophyll and proteins found in thylakoids

ATD synthase

cluster of proteins that span the cell memebrane and allow gydroen ions(H+) to pass through it

electron transport chain

series of electron carrier proteins that shuttle high energy electrons dasing ATP generating reactions?

calvin cycle

light independent reactions of photosynthesis in which enery from ATp AND nadph IS USED TO BUILD THIGH ENERGY COMPOUNDS SUCH AS SUGARS


smallest unit that can perform all the life processes

cell theory

principle that states all organisms are made of one or more cells that arise from other cells


organism whose cells have a nucleus enclosed by a membrane


sinle celled organism without a nucleus bacterial cell


organelle in a eukaryotic cell that contains digestive enzymes

endoplasmic reticulum

cell membranes in the cytoplasm that transport substances made by the cell


organelle that uses light energy to make carbohydrates from carbon dioxide and water


organelle on whick proteins are made


random movement of particles from an area of high concentration to an area of lower concentration

facilitated diffusion

transport of substances through a cell membrane down a concentration radient aided by carrier proteins

which kingdoms of life include eukaryotic cells

animals plant

what is active transport

energy (A+P) is used to move material into or out of cell

why would a cell do endocytosis

movement of cell membrane to be in glorge? molecules in

why would a cell do exocytosis

movement of cell membrane to move molecules out


science of life

cellular respirtion

process by which living organism harvest the energy in food molecules


anaerobic process of cellular respiration that recycles ND + needed to continue glycolysis

How is enery released from ATP

Breaking the bonds betwee its phosphate energy?

What is an aerobic process

requires oxyen

What is an anaerobic process

doesn't require oxygen

Where does glycolysis take place


Where does respiration take place


Where does fermentation take place

cytoplasm of cells

How much ATP is produced for every 1 glucose during Glycolysis

2 0r 4

How much ATP is produced for every 1 glucose during Krebs cycle


How much ATP is produced fro every 1 glucose during Fermentation


How much ATP is produced for every 1 glucose during Aerobic Cellular Respiration

up to 36

How much ATP is produced for every 1 glucose during Anaerobic Respirationq


In what order dows cellular respiration occur

Glycolysis, Krebs Cycle Electron Transport

What is the starting molecule(s) of Glycolysis


What is the starting molecule(s) of Krebs cycle

Phsuvic acid

What is the starting molecule(s) of Electron Transport chain


What is the starting molecule(s) of Fermentation

Pyruvcacid ? (hard to read)

what is the ending product(s) of Glycolusis

Dysnic Acid 2ArD

What is the ending product(s) of Krebs cycle


What is the ending product(s) of Electron Transport chain


What is the ending product(s) of LacticAcid Fermentation

Lactic Acid

What is the ending procuct(s) of Alcoholic Fermentation

Ethyl Alcohol

What are NADH and FADH2 used for in Electron Transport chain

energy, to start it

Where do NADH and FADHc in electron Transport chain come from

Krebs cycle


organized way of gathering and analyzing evidence about the natural world


process of noticing and describing events or processes in a careful ordely way


a logical interpretation based on prior knowlede and experience


possible explanation for a set of observations or possibel answer to a scientific question

controlled experiment

experiment in which only one virable is changed

independent variable

factor in a controlled experiment that is deliberately changed also called manipulated variable

dependent variable

variable that is observed and that changes in response to the independent variable also called the responding varable

control group

group in an experiment that is exposed to the same conditions as the experiment group except for the independent variable


evidence information gathered for observation


well tested explanation that unifies a broad range of observation and hypothesis and enables scientists to make accurate predications about new situations


pasticular prefecence or point of view that is personal rather than scientific


scientific study of life


a genetic code written in a molecule


signal to whick an organism responds

sex reproduction

type of reproduction in whick cells from two parents unit to form the first cell of a new organism

asexual reprodution

process of reproduction involving a sinle parent that results in offsprin that are genetically identical to the parent


relatively constant internal pysical and chemical conditions that organisms maintain


the conbination of chemical reactionsthough which an organism builds up or breaks down materials


part of the earth in which life exists includin land, water, and air or atomoshere


pure substance that consists entirely of one type of atom


substance forced by the chemical combination of two or more elements in definit propotions

ionic Bond

chemical bond formed when one or more elections are transfered from one atom to another


atom that has an positve or negative charged

covalen Bond

type of bond between atoms in which the electrons are shared


smallest unit of most compounds that display all the properties of that compound

hydsogen ? bond

weak attraction between a hydrogen atom and another atom


attraction between molecules of the same substance


force of attraction between different kinds of molecules

PH scale

scale with values from 0 to `14 used to measure the concontration of H+ ions in solution a PH of 0 to 7 is acidic a ph of 7 is neutral and a ph of 7 to 14 is basic


compound that forms hydsogan ions (H+) in solution a solution with a ph of less than 7


compound that produces hydsoxice ions(OH-) in solution solution with a ph of more than 7


compound made up of carbon hydrogen and oxygen atoms type of nultrient that is the major source of energy for the body


macromolecules made mostly from carbon and hydrogen atoms includes fats oil and waater

nucleic acid

macromoleculs containing hydrogen oxygen nitrogen carbon and phosphorus


macromoleculs that contain carbon hydrogen oxyen and nitrogen needed by the body for rowth and repair

amino acid

compound with an amino group on one end and an carbonyl group on the other end

chemical reactions

process that changes or transforms one set of chemical into another set of chemicals


elements or compounds that enters info a chemical reaction


elements or compound produced by a chemical reaction

activation energy

energy that is needed to get a reaction started


substance that speeds up the rate of a chemical reaction


protein catalyst that speed up the rate of a specific biological reactions


reactionof an enzyme catalyzedd reaction?

biotic factor

any living part of the environment with whick an oranizm might interact

abiotic factor

physical or nonliving factor that shapes an ecosystem

primary produces

first produces of energy rich? compounds that are later used by other organisms


organism that relies on another organisms for its energy and food supply also called hetesotraph?


organism that is able to capture energy from sunlight or chemicals and use it to produce its own food from inorganic compound also called a producer


organism that obtains food by consuming other living thins also called a consumer


process used by plants and other autotrophs to capture light energy and used it to power chemical reactions that can vert carbon dioxide and water into oxygen and energy rich carbohydrates

chemosyn thesis

process in which chemical energy is used to produce carbohydrates

trophic level

each stip in a food chain or food web

ecological pyromid

illustration of the relative amounts of energy or matter contined within each trophic level in a given food chain or web


total amount of living tissue within a given tsophic level


ability of an oranism to survive and reproduce under circumstnaces that differ from their optimal conditions


area where an organism including the biotic and abiotic factors that affect it


full range of physical and biological conditions in which an organism lives and the way in which the organism thoes? conditions

competitive exclusion pronciple

principle that states that no two species can occupy the same niche in the same habitat at the same time


interaction in which one organism (the predntor)captures and feeds on another organims(the prey)

keystone species

single species that is not usually abundant in a community yet exerts strong control on the structure of a community


relationship in which tow species live close together


symbiotic relationship in which both species benefit the relationship


symbiotic relationship in which one organism lives on or inside another organism and harms it


symbiotic relationship in which one organism benefits and the other is neither help or harm

ecological succession

series of gradual changes that occor in a comminity following a disturbance

primary succession

succesion that occurs in an area in which no trace of a provious community is present

pioneer species

first species to populate an area during succession

secondary succession

type of growth indicats in which the stems increase in thickness

population density

number of individual per unit area


movement of individuals into an area occupied by an existing population


movement of individuals out of an area

exponential growth

growth pattern in which the individuals in a population reproduce at a consistent rate

logistic growth

growth pattern in which a populations growth slows and then stops following a period of exponential growth

carsy capacity???

largest number of individuals of a particular species that a paricular environment can support

limiting factor

factor that causes population growth to decrease

density dependent

limiting factor that depends on population density

dinsity independent limiting factor

limiting factor that affects all population in similar ways regardiless of the population density


forming strategy of planting a single highly productive crop year after year

sustainble development

strategy focusing nutural resources without deplefing???? them and for providing human nees without causing long term environment harm


lower land praductivity caused by overfarming overgrazing seasonal drought and climate change


destruction of forests


harmful material that can enter the biosphere through the land air or water

biological magnification

the increasing concentration of a harmbul substance in organisms at higher hrophic? levels in a food chain or food web


the total of the variety of organisms in the biosphere also called biological diversity

ecosystem diversit

variety of habitats communities and ecological processesin the biophere

species diversity

number of different species that make up a particular see??

genetic diversity

sum total of all the different forms of genetic informationcarried by a particular pieces or by organisms on Earth

habitat fragmentation

splitting of ecosystems into pieces

ecological footpoint?

total amount of functioning ecosystem need to both provide the resources and human population uses and to absorbe the waters that population generates

What are the three subatomic particles

protons neutrons electrons

Protrons charge


neutrons charge


electrons charge


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