Campbell Biology - Chapter 43
The Immune System
Terms in this set (51)
a system (including the thymus and bone marrow and lymphoid tissues) that protects the body from foreign substances and pathogenic organisms by producing the immune response
General, non-specific protection to the body, including the skin (barrier), gastric acid, phagocytes, lysozyme, and complement.
immunity, resistance to a specific pathogen
an enzyme found in saliva and sweat and tears that destroys the cell walls of certain bacteria
process in which phagocytes engulf and digest microorganisms and cellular debris
The branch of acquired immunity that involves the activation of B cells and that leads to the production of antibodies, which defend against bacteria and viruses in body fluids.
when pathogens penetrate the physical and chemical barriers of the skin and mucous membranes, they encounter a second line of defense: internal antimicrobial substances, phagocytes, natural killer cells, inflammation and fever
skin; mucous membranes; secretions
Pattern recognition receptors on phagocytic cells. Bind pathogen associated molecular patterns. Upon binding, brings the antigen into cell and activates antigen presentation
A type of white blood cell that engulfs invading microbes and contributes to the nonspecific defenses of the body against disease, dies after it eats
Found within the lymph nodes (some migrate and some reside in other tissues), they are phagocytes that destroy bacteria, cancer cells, and other foreign matter
specialized white blood cells that patrol the body (usually in tissues with direct contact to environment) searching for antigens that produce infections, move to lymph nodes after ingest
natural killer cells
Large, granular, cytotoxic lymphocytes that circulate in the blood. NK cells are important in innate immunity to viruses and other intracellular pathogens and also kill certain tumor cells.
Antiviral proteins secreted by infected cells
A group of blood proteins that bind non-specifically to the surface proteins of foreign cells (such as bacteria), ultimately leading to the destruction of the foreign cell - part of the innate immunity.
nonspecific defense reaction to tissue damage caused by injury or infection, starts with histamine
a regulating body substance released in excess during allergic reactions causing swelling and inflammation of tissues
a vertebrate body cell that produces histamine and other molecules that trigger the inflammatory response.
communication chemicals-example, released by T helper cells that stimulate B cells
a localized region on the surface of an antigen that is chemically recognized by antibodies; also called antigenic determinant
the larger of the two component polypeptides of an immunoglobulin molecule. Heavy chains come in a variety of heavy-chain classes or isotypes, each of which confers a distinctive effector function on the antibody molecule.
smaller of the two identical pairs of chains constituting immunoglobulin molecules; the bottom of the Y where it V's
the two types of white blood cells that are part of the body's immune system: B lymphocytes form in the bone marrow and release antibodies that fight bacterial infections; T lymphocytes form in the thymus and other lymphatic tissue and attack cancer cells, viruses, and foreign substances.
a ductless glandular organ at the base of the neck that produces lymphocytes and aids in producing immunity
an immune system cell that coordinates the immune system and attacks many infected cells
Cells manufactured in the bone marrow that create antibodies for isolating and destroying invading bacteria and viruses.
any substance (as a toxin or enzyme) that stimulates the production of antibodies
For a B cell, the antigen receptor is its cell-surface immunoglobulin; for a T cell the antigen receptor is a rather similar molecule called the T-cell receptor. Each individual lymphocyte bears receptors of a single antigen specificity.
a class of proteins produced in lymph tissue in vertebrates and that function as antibodies in the immune response
any of a large variety of proteins normally present in the body or produced in response to an antigen which it neutralizes, thus producing an immune response
A large set of cell surface antigens encoded by a family of genes. Foreign MHC markers trigger T-cell responses that may lead to the rejection of transplanted tissues and organs. Type I on all nucleated body cells, type II on APCs
The process by which an MHC molecule binds to a fragment of an intracellular protein antigen and carries it to the cell surface, where it is displayed and can be recognized by a T cell.
Immunoglobulin gene rearrangement
the process whereby the immunoglobulin gene locus is rearranged in developing B cells in order to take on the mature configuration that is capable of producing a unique BCR or surface-bound immunoglobulin, DNA rearrangements by recombinase
The process by which an antigen selectively binds to and activates only those lymphocytes bearing receptors specific for the antigen. the selected lymphocytes proliferate and differentiate into a clone of effector cells and a clone of memory cells specific for the stimulating antigen.
the muscle cells or gland cells that actually carry out the body's responses to stimuli.
B lymphocytes that do not become plasma cells but remain dormant until reactivated by the same antigen and T cells that have been selected to produce receptors that recognize a specific antigen
primary immune response
the initial immune response to an antigen, which appears after a lag of several days
secondary immune response
The adaptive immune response provoked by a second exposure to an antigen. It differs from the primary response by starting sooner and building more quickly.
humoral immune response
an immune response (chiefly against bacterial invasion) that is mediated by B cells
cell-mediated immune response
The branch of acquired immunity that involves the activation of cytotoxic T cells, which defend against infected cells.
helper T cell
T cell with CD4 receptor that recognizes antigens on the surface of a virus-infected cell and secretes lymphokines that stimulate B cells and killer T cells
Cells that possess MHC II (macrophages, dendritic cells...B cells) and are able to display bits of ingested antigen on their surface in order to activate T cells. See also "MHC"
cytotoxic T cells
T cells that can kill other cells. Almost all cytotoxic T cells are CD8 T cells. Cytotoxic T cells are important in host defense against viruses and other cytosolic pathogens, because they recognize and kill the infected cells.
Cells that develop from B cells and produce antibodies.
a form of acquired immunity in which the body produces its own antibodies against disease-causing antigens
an impermanent form of acquired immunity in which antibodies against a disease are acquired naturally (as through the placenta to an unborn child) or artificially (as by injection of antiserum)
process by which resistance to an infectious disease is induced
an injection that produces a mild form of a disease in order to help build up an immunity to it
substances that activate the immune system leading to eventual production of a specific immunoglobulin (IgE)
any of a large group of diseases characterized by abnormal functioning of the immune system that causes your immune system to produce antibodies against your own tissues
immunological disorder in which some part of the body's immune system is inadequate and resistance to infectious diseases is reduced