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Public Speaking 1315 Exam 2
Terms in this set (162)
How does Informative speaking differs from persuasive speaking?
Informative speaking teaches, persuasive speaking convinces
what are cons of getting demographics
people are not alway truthful on surveys and there is a lot of stereotyping based on them
what is good will in terms of speeches
the belief that if you think the speaker is not trustworthy or not smart you will not listen to what they have to say
what are some types of informative speaking
Narratives and reports
the agenda-setting function of informative speaking refers to telling an audience _____
What to think about
Guidelines for competent informative speaking include
tell us what we don't already know, avoid information overload and adapt your topic to your audience's knowledge base
what are some tips for effective narrative speeches
keep the story concise and choose a story that fits your audience
the lecture is a common example of a
speech that explains
an informative speech differs from a persuasive speech because
informative speeches are non controversial; persuasive speeches are controversial. and informal speeches can precursors to persuasive speeches
True or False: Informative speeches do not usually stir disagreement and dissension
True or False: Informative speeches typically tell us what to think, and persuasive speeches tell us what to think about
True or False: An informative speech may produce a strong desire from listeners to correct a problem presented during a speech
True or False: Demonstrations and lectures are the same type of informative speech
True or False: An Informative speech presents the pros and cons on an issue or topic, then takes a side at the end based on those pros and cons
True or False: your narrative speech will be best if you read from a manuscript
True or False: When preparing an informative speech, ask yourself id you have included needless detail that may make the speech too long
What is manuscript speaking
speaking from a written version of the speech
What are some common disadvantages of manuscript speaking
weak eye contact with audience, changes in content to adapt to audience feedback are difficult to make smoothly, speech sounds read instead of natural
How are Impromptu and extemporaneous speaking differ
Extemporaneous is speaking from a prepared outline; impromptu is speaking with little or no preparation or notes
What are simple ways to improve eye contact with an audience when giving a speech
being very familiar with the content of the speech
When should a manuscript speech be used
when the speaker must be scrupulously precise in phrasing to avoid legal problems or causing offense
what is an advantage to extemporaneous speaking
it allows the speaker to respond to the audience feedback as it occurs
when giving a competent impromptu speech what is involved
anticipate impromptu speaking, draw on your life experience and knowledge for substance of your speech and formulate a simple outline
when you use a prepared outline for a speech, what type of speech are you giving
what is a useful tip about effective delivery of speeches
there is no one correct way to deliver a speech, but many effective ways depending on context. and march your delivery to the speech context and audience expectations
what are the 4 principal methods of delivery
manuscript, memorized, extemporaneous and impromptu
what is articulation
speaking words clearly and distinctly
True or False: Memorizing a speech should be encouraged for all novice speakers
True or False: Extemporaneous speaking is speaking from a prepared outline
True or False: A Manuscript should never be used for a speech
True or False: Impromptu speaking is the easiest method of delivering a speech
What is a Captive audience
an audience that is required to attend, they assemble to hear you speak because it is compelled to not because the listeners expect entertainment or intellectual stimulation
what is a committed audience
they voluntarily assembles because_ they want to invest time and energy listening to and being inspired by a speaker.
A _______________ usually agrees with your position already and is presumably interested since they voluntarily appeared to hear your speech
what is ambushing
looking for a weakness in your arguments and preparing to pounce on a perceived mistakes in your facts
What is a concerned audience
they gather voluntarily to hear a speaker because listeners care about issues and ideas. They want to gather to learn information
a _________ is a motivated audience
what is a casual audience
they are composed of individuals who become listeners because they hear a speaker, stop out of curiosity or causal interest and remain until bored or sated
what is attitude
it is a learned predisposition to respond favorably or unfavorably toward some attitude object
what is a belief
it is what a person thinks is true or probable. It is an assertion of fact without evaluation
what is value
its the most deeply felt, generally shared view of what is deemed good, right, or worthwhile thinking or behavior
_______ are the general ideals that guide our lives
what is a demographic
characteristics of an audience such as age, gender, culture, ethnicity, and group affiliations
what are stereotypes
they are broad generalizations about groups, which in some instances may be more true than nit but they ignore individual differences of members with in that group
what is ethnocentrism
the belief that customs, practices and behaviors of your own culture are superior to any other culture
what is identification
the affiliation and connection between speaker and audience. a key element to this is Like-ability of the speaker
what is social cohesion
it binds us together in mutual liking
what is stylistic similarity
the fact that we tend to identify more closely with those individuals who appear to be similar to us
what encourages identification
highlighting similarities in positions, values and attitudes
wha is substantive similarity
it creates identification by establishing common ground between speaker and audience
what is credibility
judgments made by a perceiver concerning the believability of a communicator
In Rhetoric, Aristotle identified the ingredients of credibility or _______ as good sense, good more character and good will
what is competence
refers to the audience's perception of the speaker's knowledge and experience on a topic.
___________ addresses the question of " Does this speaker know what he or she is talking about"
What is trustworthiness?
refers to how truthful or honest we perceive the speaker to be
______________ address the question of "Can I believe what the speaker says?"
what is dynamism
a third dimension of credibility. it refers to the enthusiasm, energy and forcefulness exhibited by a speaker
what is composure
its when the audiences tend to be influenced by speakers who are emotionally stable and appear confident and in control of themselves
What is attention
the act of focusing on a specific stimulus to the exclusion of competing stimuli
___________ is unavoidably selective
_____________ are terrible at every aspect of multitasking. they are bas at ignoring irrelevant information and and bad at keeping information in their head nicely and neatly organized and they cant switch to other task
Public Speaking is a _________________ process
What are the steps to being a mindful listener
Come prepared ti listen to speakers.
Be an active listener.
Take notes if practical.
If the speech is informative, jot down any detail that is new information.
listen critically for solid reasoning and strong evidence.
Be ethical and respectful.
__________ is active listening and requires focused attention
___________ attracts attention
a startling statement, fact or statistic can do what?
get the audience's attention
___________________ can be unsettling. they are meant to alarm, shock and astonish an audience into listening intently to what you have to say
Startling statements, facts and statistics
What is Vital appeal
attention to stimuli that are meaningful to you and you ignore stimuli that are relatively meaningless. Problems and issues that vitally affect your lives are meaningful
What is self- deprecation
humor that makes gentle fun of your own failings and limitations. It can be appealing because it communicates that you don't take your self too serious and are confident enough to recognize your flaws
What is intensity
it is concentrated stimuli, it is an extreme degree of emotion, thought or activity
What are the 3 differences between written and oral style speeches
1: Oral style usually uses simpler sentences than written style.
2: Oral style is highly interactive, written style is not.
3: oral style is usually less formal than written style
what makes oral style of speeches more interactive
you can look directly into the faces of your listeners and if you sense that they do not understand, you can adjust your point by adding an example or asking the listeners if they understand.
How does the electronic age and traditional way of speaking differ
the traditional age is more factual, analytic, organized and impersonal. the new and electronic age is more narrative, personal and self-disclosive, dramatic and vivid
_________________ speaking style can come across as data driven and impersonal on visual media as bland even robotic
blending the factual/analytic and the narrative/dramatic speaking styles will be __________
the best choice for all speeches you give in the electronic age
____________ works most effectively when language is clear and understandable
________ comes from a simple and concise style
what is Jargon
the specialized language of a profession, trade or group. it a verbal short hand
What is an euphemism?
an indirect or vague word or phrase used to numb us to or conceal unpleasant or offensive realities.
what are examples of euphemisms
saying "passed away" instead of dead at a funeral
What is slang
the highly informal speech not in conventional use, it can be used when you are confident that your listeners will comprehend and identify with such casual speech. Normally only use it in an oral style speech so you can see if it is appropriate for the audience
What is being precise
when you choose your words carefully and know their exact meaning
when you use words imprecisely or inaccurately, you ______________________ and look foolish
diminish your credibility
What can vividness do for a speech
it makes the speakers ideas attention-getting and memorable
What is a metaphor?
an implied comparison of 2 seemingly dissimilar things
what is a mixed metaphor
the use of 2 or more vastly different metaphors in a single expression
what are examples of a mixed metaphor
thats the way with these directors, they are always biting the hand that lays the golden egg
what is a simile
an explicit comparison of two seemingly dissimilar things using the words like or as
what is a cliche
a once vivid expression that has been overused to the point of seeming commonplace
what is an example of a cliche
dumb as a post or naked as a jaybird
What is an alliteration
the repetition is the same sound usually a consonant sound starting with each word. it can create a very vivid and effective cadence
what is repetition
reiterating the same word, phrase or sentence usually with parallel structures
What is an antithesis
a sentence composed of 2 parts with parallel structure but opposite meanings to create impact
What is an example of an antithesis
"it was the best of times: it was the worst of times" by Charles Dickens
what type of delivery can undermine your effectiveness
an inappropriate and over the top delivery
a ___________ has a distinct rhythm and it can sound stilted and overly formal. if it is used to much it can be a distraction
when should you use a manuscript
when you have to be scrupulously precise in your phrasing for fear of being legally encumbered or causing offense
who uses manuscripts a lot
what are the draw backs for using a manuscript
1: the speaker will appear scripted and ownership of their ideas becomes suspect.
2: digressions from the prepared manuscript are difficult to make smoothly.
3: The speaker can get buried in the manuscript and fails to establish eye contact with the audience.
when is a good time to memorize a speech
for a short toast at a wedding or a brief acceptance speech at a awards ceremony
what are the steps if you have to memorize a speech?
1: practice your speech repeatedly.
2: look at your audience.
3: if you forget exact phrasing, put the point in other words.
4: do not apologize if you momentarily go blank.
what is an impromptu speech
an address delivered without preparation or so it seems.
what are the steps to doing good for impromptu speeches
1:anticipate impromptu speaking.
2: draw on your life experience and Knowledge for the substance of your remarks.
3: formulate a simple outline for an impromptu speech.
when do you use extemporaneous speaking
in most public speaking classes
what is extemporaneous speaking
a delivery from a prepared outline or notes.
what are the advantages to extemporaneous speaking
1: it sounds spontaneous but you are prepared,
2: it permits greater eye contact with the audience.
3: it allows the speaker to respond to audience feedback as it occurs.
what is a draw back for extemporaneous speaking
it takes time to learn how to deliver a speech from notes
what are the steps to giving an extemporaneous speech
1: use a presentation outline not a preparation outline.
2: be extremely familiar with your material.
3: repeatedly practice delivering your speech from your presentational outline.
_____________ is an important element of a speakers credibility
What are the steps to having good eye contact
1: be very familiar with your speech so you dont look at your notes.
2: practice looking at your entire audience. look at one side and the other than the middle so you dont leave anyone out.
what is inflection
what is pitch
the range of your voice from high to low sounds
_________ can be avoid by varying the volume of your voice to loud to soft
a ________ voice singles intense and passionate feelings
what are vocal fillers
the insertion of "um, uh, like, you know" and other words that substitute for pauses an often draw attention to themselves. when the audience notices it, it can reduce your credibility
_________ speaking rates increase the audience's perception of you as intelligent, confident and effective
moderately fast and rapid
___________ speaking rates are stereotyped as slow-witted and unintelligent in every culture studied
what is articulation
speaking words clearly and distinctly
what is pronunciation
saying words correctly as indicated in any dictionary based on standard english rules
a straight upright posture exudes confidence and enhances ________
when you move while speaking, you should do ___________________
everything in moderation
do not ________ gestures. they should be non-conscious and happen naturally
________ should match the context of your speech. it is audience centered
appropriateness of your delivery is dependent on _____________________________
certain expectations inherent to the occasion and purpose of your speech
What is a claim
a generalization that remains to be proven with reasoning and evidence
What is skepticism?
the critical thinking process of inquiry whereby claims are evaluated by engaging in a rigorous examination of evidence and reasoning to support those claims
__________ is the process for acquiring beliefs and changing them when warranted
what is true belief
a willingness to accept claims without solid reasoning or valid evidence and hold on to those beliefs tenaciously even if a mountain of contradictory evidence proves them wrong
What is cynicism
fult-finding and ridiculing of ideas.
___________ are quick to mock human frailties and imperfections and to deride the beliefs of others. They do not seek the truth only their next target
what is the difference between a skeptic and a true believer
the process used to arrive at an maintain a belief.
_____________ is a profoundly positive and intellectual journey that seeks knowledge and understanding wile avoiding the dangers of true belief
what is a confirmation bias
the tendency to seek information that supports one's beliefs and ignore information that contradicts those beliefs
___________are belief-driven and not evidence driven. their beliefs are formed first then they look for confirmation
what is disconfirmation
inventing superficial even glib, alternative explanations for contradictory evidence
what is the burden of proof
it is your obligation to present compelling reasoning and evidence to support your claim
what is shifting the burden of proof
inappropriately assuming the validity of a claim unless it is proven false by another person who never made the original claim
______________ is common among true believers
shifting the burden of proof
what is the law of truly large numbers
with large numbers almost anything is likely to happen to someone, somewhere, somehow or sometime
What is the difference between informative and persuasive speeches
your general purpose. for informative you want to teach and for persuasive you want to convince
what is the general purpose for a persuasive speech
to convince your listeners to change their view point and behavior
what is the general purpose for an informative speech
to teach your audience something new, interesting and useful
what is a report
usually a brief, concise, informative presentation that fulfills a class assignment, updates a committee about work performed by a subcommittee ect.
___________ should be clearly presented, all complex detailed information should be summarized
what do explanation speeches do
they seek to explain and are concerned with advancing a deep understanding of complex concepts with people who typically are unfamiliar with the material
what is an example of an explanation speech
what is a demonstration
an informative speech that shoes the audience how to use an object or perform a specific activity. It requires the speaker to show the physical object or to display the activity
what is an example of a demonstration speech
a dance teacher demonstrating a dance step while explaining how best to perform the steps
_________ is NOT a mere description of objects or activities
_____________ can be about you, other people or historical events. They are normally most effective when they entertain the audience
__________________ work best when the information presented is clear, accurate and interesting instead of opaque, wrong and boring
what are some tips you should follow when giving an informative speech
1: provide new information to the audience.
2: choose a topic that will interest your audience and is well suited for their knowledge, concerns and expectation.
3: if you have to speak over a complicated topic, use a lot of examples, personal stories, visual aids and metaphors.
4: practice timing your self.
___________ your speech will tell you if you have provided too much information.
what question should you ask your self so you dont give to much information in your speech
"Do they really need to Know this?"
what are the steps when giving a narrative speech
1: Choose a story that fits your audience.
2: make sure that the story fits your purpose and illustrates a key point.
3: keep the story concise.
4: Use stories that have 3 main components: challenge, struggle and resolution.
5: practice telling your story.
6: do not read your story to listeners.
7: be animated and visual when telling a story.
what are the dangers of true belief?
1: decline in scientific literacy and critical thinking.
2: inability to make informed decisions.
3: monetary losses by substantial number of people.
4:diversion of society's resources that could be used to solve serious problems.
5: Promotion of simplistic answers to complex problems that may result in needless death.
6:creation of false hopes and unrealistic expectations.
what are examples of this?
air, water, food shelter
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