16 terms

EOC Physical Science Vocab #1

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Alpha radiation
particle with a +2 electrical charge and atomic mass of 4 that is made of two protons and two neutrons and is emitted from a decaying atomic nucleus.
Atomic Mass
weighted average mass of the mixture of an element's isotopes.
Atomic Number
number of proton's in an atom's nucleus
Beta radiation
electron with an atomic mass of 0 and a -1 electrical charge that is emitted at high speed from a decaying atomic nucleus.
Covalent Bond
attraction formed between atoms when they share electrons
Electron
negatively charged particles surrounding the center of an atom.
Gamma radiation
electromagnetic wave with no mass and no charge that travels at the speed of light and is usually emitted with alpha or beta particles.
Group (family)
vertical column in the periodic table.
Half-life
amount of time it takes for help the nuclei in a sample of a radioactive isotope to decay.
Ion
charged particle that has more or fewer electrons than protons.
Ionic Bond
attraction formed between two oppositely charged ions in an ionic compound.
Isotope
atoms of the same element that have different numbers of neutrons.
Nuclear Fission
process of splitting a large atomic nucleus into two nuclei with smaller masses.
Nuclear Fusion
process of fusing together two atomic nuclei with low masses to form one nucleus with a larger mass.
Proton
positively charged particle, composed of quarks, inside the nucleus of an atom.
Valence electrons
the electrons in the outermost shell or energy level of an atom.