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156 terms

Final

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what is not one of the 6 classes of nutrients?
fibers
what is a characteristic of an essential nutrient?
cannot be made in sufficient quantities by the body
what most accurately describes the term organic?
substances possessing carbon-carbon or carbon-hydrogen bonds
what nutrients does not yield energyduring its metabolism
vitamins
a weight reduction regimen calls for a daily intake of 1400 kcal which includes 30g of fat. Approx what% of the total energy is contributed by fat?
19%
what nutrient source yields more than 4 calories per gram
plant fats
a diet provides a total of 2200 kcal of which 40% of the energy is from fat and 20% from prtein. How many grams of carbohydrates are contained in the diet?
220g
what is the kcal value of a meal supplying 110g of carbohydrates, 25g of protein, 20g of fat, and 5g of alcohol
755
when consumed in excess, all of the following [sugar, corn oil, alcohol] can be converted to body fat except
vitamin C
what results from the metabolism of energy nutrients
energy is released
what is the meaning of a double-blind experiment
neither subjects nor researchers know which subjects are in control or experiment group
short and medium chain triglycerides are transported the
vascular system
who would be the most appropriate person to consult regarding nutrition information
registered dietician
nutrient density refers to foods that
provide more nutrients that kcal relative to the RDA
what bread has the highest fiber content
whole-grain
what mineral is added in the enrichment process of refined flours
iron
a food is labeled ingredient list reads: wheat flour, vegetable shortening, sugar, salt, and cornstarch. What item would be found in lowest amount?
cornstarch
what structure prevents food from entering the trachea when you swallow
epiglottis
what is one function of the pyloric sphincter
prevents the contents of the intestine from backing up into the stomach
what structure seperates the colon from the small intestine
ileocecal valve
into what region of the intestinal tract does the stomach empty
duodenum
what is a bolus
portion of food swallowed at one time
after swallowing, in what order does food pass through the GI tract
stomach, duodenum, jejunum, ileum, colon
a food label reports 15g of fat and 270 kcals per serving. What percentage of kcals come from fat?
50%
what is the function of mucus in the stomach
protects the stomach cells from gastric juices
what is the function of hydrochloric acid in the stomach
creates an optimum acidity
why is there little or no digestion of starch in the stomach
salivary enzyme does not work in an acid environment
what is one function of the gallbladder
stores bile
what is generally not digested but does stimulate intestinal muscle contractions
fiber
absorption of nutrients by intestinal cells does not occur by what mechanism
active diffusion
to assist the process of digestion and absorption, it is best to
combine different food types to enhance the absorption process
blood leaving the digestive system goes by way of a vein to the
liver
immediately after absorption, which circulatory system carries the fat soluble vitamins and large fats
lymphatic
what stimulates the pancreas to release bicarbonate-rich juice
secretin
the presence of fat in the intestine stimulates cells of the intestinal wall to release
cholecystokinin
when you are under great physical stress, what hormone is released quickly to stimulate an increase in blood glucose concentration
epinephrine
what is the primary function of insulin
lowers blood glucose levels
what is a typical response of the body to changes in blood glucose
blood glucose levels that fall too low signal the release of glucagons
when blood glucose concentration falls, what pancreatic hormone is secreted to stimulate release of stored glucose
glucagon
what is the appropriate term to describe a food that contributes energy, but is virtually devoid of protein, vitamins, and minerals
empty kcal food
what is best known to result from regular ingestion of sugar
dental cavaties
according to most dietary guidelines, what percentage of the day's total energy intakeshould be furnished by carbohydrates
55-60
which of the following does NOT describe a function of fat?
best source of energy for the brain
a compound composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen with 3 fatty acids attached to a molecule of glycerol would be known as a
triglyceride
in which form are most dietary lipids found?
triglycerides
which of the following describes a fatty acid that has one double bond?
monounsaturated
lipids differ in their degree of saturation or unsaturation due to the number of
double bonds
a major cause of rancidity of lipids in foods is exposure to
heat and oxygen
the following is associated with the presence of fat in the GI tract
slowing of the process of digestion and absorption
what type of nutrient is starch?
Complex carbohydrate
the following is a component of all three dietary disaccharides
glucose
what is the reaction that links two monosaccharides together?
condensation
is a by product of the condensation of two molecules of glucose
water
what is the composition of sucrose?
one glucose and one fructose
what is the composition of lactose?
one glucose and one galactose
the chemical reaction by which starch is split into monosaccharides is
hydrolysis
what is the name of the animal polysaccharide composed of glucose units?
glycogen
a characteristic of dietary fiber
classified according to solubility in water
what is the first organ to receive carbohydrates absorbed from the intestine?
liver
what is not a symptom of lactose intolerance
constipation
gluconeogenisis is a term that describes the synthesis of
glucose from a non carbohydrate substance
proteins that inactivate foreign bacteria and viruses
antibodies
the primary organ for production of urea
liver
illustrates a deamination raction
removal of amino group from an amino acid
if the diet is lacking an essential amino acid, what will the course of action be?
protein synthesis will be limited
the chief factor that governs the quality of a food protein
essential amino acid content
what is the "limiting" amino acid in a protein
an essential amino acid present in insufficient quantity for body protein synthesis to take place
condition associated with edema
below-normal concentration of blood protein which causes fluid to leak from the blood vessels
term that describes the quote "the evil spirit that infects the first child when the second child is born"
kwashiorkor
man consumes 65 grams of protein and a total of 2,700 kcal per day, approx what percentage of energy would be derived from protein?
10
what term is specific to reactions in which simple compounds are combined into more complex molecules?
anabolic
the formation of glycogen by the liver cell is an example of
anabolism
what would be approx weight gain of a person who consumes an excess of 500kcal/day?
4 lbs
describes the process of thermogenisis
generation of heat
what fraction of the day's energy expenditure of the average person is represented by the basal metabolism?
about 2/3
defines central obesity
storage of excess fat around the central part of the body
defines the body's set point
point above which the body tends to lose weight and below which it tends to gain weight.
promotes fat storage in adipocytes
lipoprotein lipase
what percentage of people who lose weight by dieting fail to maintain the wight loss?
95%
defines weight cycling
a series of weight loss and regain episodes that affects body composition and metabolism
the best approach to weight loss
reduce daily energy intake and increase energy expenditure
what is the primary excretory rout for the water-soluble vitamins?
kidney
explains why vitamin B deficiencies lead to lack of energy
Coenzymes need for energy metabolism are produced in insufficient amounts
requirement for thiamin
energy is released from energy-yielding nutrients
characteristic shared by olive oil and canola oil
both contain high levels of monosaturated fatty acids
what lipid is an essential nutrient?
Linoleic acid
what characteristic is shared by cholesterol [sterol] and lecithin [phospholipids]?
both are synthesized in the body
what type of compound is lecithin?
phospholipid
what cannot be found in plants?
cholesterol
contains the least cholesterol
steamed corn
characteristic of cholesterol?
it is a precursor for bile and vitamin D synthesis
what part of the gastrointestinal tract is the predominant site of dietary fat hydrolysis?
small intestine
what is the storage site of bile?
gallbladder
after a meal, most of the fat that eventually empties into the blood is in the form of particles known as
chylomicrons
what lipoprotein contains the highest percentage of cholesterol?
Low density lipoprotein [LDL]
what lipoprotein is responsible for transporting cholesterol back to the liver from the periphery of the body?
High Density Lipoprotein [HDL]
a low risk of cardiovascular disease correlates with high blood levels of
High Density Lipoprotein
what is the function of adipose cell hormone-sensitive lipase?
hydrolyzes triglycerides to provide fatty acids for other cells
what is a substance that is converted to Vitamin A in the body?
Beta-Carotene
What is most likely to occur from a prolonged dietary deficiency of Vit A?
Xeropthalmia
Keratinization is the result of
Deficiency of Vit A
what is most likely to induce Vit. A toxicity in adults?
consuming high-doses of Vit. A supplements
what can be used by the body to synthesize Vitamin D?
exposure to sunlight
in what tissue must a molecule of Vit D be chemically altered to yield a compound that is fully active?
liver and kidney
in what system would effects of Vit. D deficiency most readily be observed?
skeletal
what condition or disease is known to be caused by a deficiency of the same nutrient?
osteomalacia and rickets
the main function of vitamin E in the body is to act as an
antioxidant
what disorder may result from vitamin E deficiency in people?
erythrocyte hemolysis
in what chief capacity does vitamin K function?
blood clotting
what vitamin is synthesized by intestinal bacteria?
Vitamin K
there is more of this mineral in your body than any other
calcium
ions that carry positive charge
Cations
major extracellular cation
sodium
what is the major extracellular anion?
chloride
mostly all of the calcium in the body is used to
provide rigidity for the bones and teeth
what is not a process that involves calcium?
pH regulation
what regulates the level of calcium in the blood
parathormone and calcitonin
people who have had their stomach and small intestine removed must receive supplement injections of which Vitamin?
Vitamin B12
What iron-containing compound carries oxygen in the bloodstream?
hemoglobin
what type of anemia results from iron deficiency?
hypochromic microcytic
what is the name given to the ingestion of nonnutritive substances?
pica
in the United States, iron is currently added to what food?
bread and cereal
a child diagnosed with iron-deficiency anemia would most likely benefit from increasing the consumption of
red meat
what is know to enhance iron absorption?
foods containing Vitamin C
Beriberi --> TPP
thiamin Vitamin B
Pellagra --> NAD
niacin
perniciona anemia --> Cabalamin
vitamin B12
hemorrhagic diseas of the newborn
Phylloquinon/menadione [vitamin K]
what mineral is part of vitamin B12?
cobalt
condensation of glucose and fructose
sucrose
hydrolysis of maltose yields to two molecules of
glucose
following absorption, galactose is converted into
glucose... in the liver
complete hydrolysis of amylose yields to
glucose
galactose and glucose condense to form
lactose
the circulation carbohydrate is
glucose
what is the coenzyme form of thiamin?
thiamin pyrophosphate
Beriberi results from a deficiency
thiamin
the wernicke-korsakoff syndrome is often observed in poorly nourished alcohol abusers. it is known to respond to supplements of
thiamin
the signs and symptoms of riboflavin deficiency are known collectively as
riboflavinosis
what is NOT a common sign of pellagra?
demineralization
what vitamin forms a part of coenzyme A?
pantothenic acid
a protein that binds with biotin [thus inhibiting absorption] is found in which food?
raw egg whites
what is associated with a deficiency of folate?
large-cell type anemia
what is required for the absorption of dietary Vitamin B12?
intrinsic factor
a similar type of anemia is produced when there is deficiency of either
vitamin b12 or folate
what is the function of the intrinsic factor in vitamin B12?
it attaches to the vitamin thereby allowing absorption from the intestines
in what capacity does Vitamin C function?
collagen formation
what is not a fat soluble vitamin?
cyanocobalamin
Vitamin A doesn't play an important role in what process?
blood clotting
what nutrient is used to form ketones?
fat
approximately how many kcalories are contained in a pound of fat?
3,500
what is the function of lipoproteins lipase?
hydrolyzes blood triglycerides for uptake into cells
how many grams of fat would be contained in an 800 kcalorie meal which provides 50% from carbohydrates, 20% from protein and the remainder from fat
27
a meal providing 1200 kcalories contains 10g of saturated fats, 14 g of monosaturated fats, and 20 g of polyunsaturated fats. what is the percentage of energy supplied by the lipids?
33
what element is found in proteins but NOT in carbohydrates and fats
nitrogen
what is not an essential amino acid in human nutrition
glycine