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what is a characteristic of an essential nutrient?
cannot be made in sufficient quantities by the body
what most accurately describes the term organic?
substances possessing carbon-carbon or carbon-hydrogen bonds
a weight reduction regimen calls for a daily intake of 1400 kcal which includes 30g of fat. Approx what% of the total energy is contributed by fat?
a diet provides a total of 2200 kcal of which 40% of the energy is from fat and 20% from prtein. How many grams of carbohydrates are contained in the diet?
what is the kcal value of a meal supplying 110g of carbohydrates, 25g of protein, 20g of fat, and 5g of alcohol
when consumed in excess, all of the following [sugar, corn oil, alcohol] can be converted to body fat except
what is the meaning of a double-blind experiment
neither subjects nor researchers know which subjects are in control or experiment group
who would be the most appropriate person to consult regarding nutrition information
a food is labeled ingredient list reads: wheat flour, vegetable shortening, sugar, salt, and cornstarch. What item would be found in lowest amount?
what is one function of the pyloric sphincter
prevents the contents of the intestine from backing up into the stomach
after swallowing, in what order does food pass through the GI tract
stomach, duodenum, jejunum, ileum, colon
a food label reports 15g of fat and 270 kcals per serving. What percentage of kcals come from fat?
why is there little or no digestion of starch in the stomach
salivary enzyme does not work in an acid environment
to assist the process of digestion and absorption, it is best to
combine different food types to enhance the absorption process
immediately after absorption, which circulatory system carries the fat soluble vitamins and large fats
the presence of fat in the intestine stimulates cells of the intestinal wall to release
when you are under great physical stress, what hormone is released quickly to stimulate an increase in blood glucose concentration
what is a typical response of the body to changes in blood glucose
blood glucose levels that fall too low signal the release of glucagons
when blood glucose concentration falls, what pancreatic hormone is secreted to stimulate release of stored glucose
what is the appropriate term to describe a food that contributes energy, but is virtually devoid of protein, vitamins, and minerals
empty kcal food
according to most dietary guidelines, what percentage of the day's total energy intakeshould be furnished by carbohydrates
a compound composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen with 3 fatty acids attached to a molecule of glycerol would be known as a
the following is associated with the presence of fat in the GI tract
slowing of the process of digestion and absorption
if the diet is lacking an essential amino acid, what will the course of action be?
protein synthesis will be limited
what is the "limiting" amino acid in a protein
an essential amino acid present in insufficient quantity for body protein synthesis to take place
condition associated with edema
below-normal concentration of blood protein which causes fluid to leak from the blood vessels
term that describes the quote "the evil spirit that infects the first child when the second child is born"
man consumes 65 grams of protein and a total of 2,700 kcal per day, approx what percentage of energy would be derived from protein?
what term is specific to reactions in which simple compounds are combined into more complex molecules?
what fraction of the day's energy expenditure of the average person is represented by the basal metabolism?
defines the body's set point
point above which the body tends to lose weight and below which it tends to gain weight.
defines weight cycling
a series of weight loss and regain episodes that affects body composition and metabolism
explains why vitamin B deficiencies lead to lack of energy
Coenzymes need for energy metabolism are produced in insufficient amounts
characteristic shared by olive oil and canola oil
both contain high levels of monosaturated fatty acids
what characteristic is shared by cholesterol [sterol] and lecithin [phospholipids]?
both are synthesized in the body
what part of the gastrointestinal tract is the predominant site of dietary fat hydrolysis?
after a meal, most of the fat that eventually empties into the blood is in the form of particles known as
what lipoprotein is responsible for transporting cholesterol back to the liver from the periphery of the body?
High Density Lipoprotein [HDL]
what is the function of adipose cell hormone-sensitive lipase?
hydrolyzes triglycerides to provide fatty acids for other cells
in what tissue must a molecule of Vit D be chemically altered to yield a compound that is fully active?
liver and kidney
what condition or disease is known to be caused by a deficiency of the same nutrient?
osteomalacia and rickets
people who have had their stomach and small intestine removed must receive supplement injections of which Vitamin?
a child diagnosed with iron-deficiency anemia would most likely benefit from increasing the consumption of
the wernicke-korsakoff syndrome is often observed in poorly nourished alcohol abusers. it is known to respond to supplements of
a protein that binds with biotin [thus inhibiting absorption] is found in which food?
raw egg whites
what is the function of the intrinsic factor in vitamin B12?
it attaches to the vitamin thereby allowing absorption from the intestines
how many grams of fat would be contained in an 800 kcalorie meal which provides 50% from carbohydrates, 20% from protein and the remainder from fat
a meal providing 1200 kcalories contains 10g of saturated fats, 14 g of monosaturated fats, and 20 g of polyunsaturated fats. what is the percentage of energy supplied by the lipids?
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