conducts wars; repels attacksrecognizes other governments (sole authority, unilateral power)
appoints ambassadors (senate confirmation by majority) appoints cabinet secretaries (senate confirmation by majority)
negotiates and signs treaties (senate ratification with 2/3)
provide "advice" as well as "consent"
constitute more than 90 percent of agreements with others (sole authority: unilateral powers)
case zablocki ac
passed in 1972,required the presideent to inform both houses of congres within 60 days of signing an executive order
(sole authority; unilateral power) e.g. ban on assasination of foreign leaders it is operative unless the congress passes a bill on this and over-rides a presidential veto.
declare national emergencies. In case of "extraordinary occasion" the president can adjourn congress if there were disagreements
article 2 section 3
congress can impeach the president for treason, bribery, and other high crimes and misdemeanors:
a writ ordering a prisoner to be brought before a judge
the supreme court
has given the president a great deal of space in foreign affairs
national security advisor
domestic realm foreign realm
presidential powers are circumscribed greatly
president has a great deal of power
With the emergence of the U.S. as a global power and by the presidency of , the office of the President became much more powerful than before.
Congress passed and created "The Executive Office of the President" in 1939.
The National Security Act of 1947."
Because of FDR's concentration of so much power in his own hands and not sharing vital information with Vice President Harry Truman, in 1947 the Congress passed
increased the power of the white house
Although the intention was to compel the President to share decision making with Vice President, Secretary of State, Secretary of Defense, it gradually (and paradoxically)
national security advisor
does NOT require confirmation by the Senate.
The NSC and the role of the National Security Adviser have been shaped by the __________ wishes
The legislation has been very _______ and this has allowed the President to do as he pretty much has wished.
under nixon, _________, became increasingly powerful first as National Security Adviser and then as Secretary of State.
under bush, ____________, became very powerful first as National Security Adviser and then as Secretary of State.
Constitutional authority that permits considerable freedom of action by the president in foreign policy.
sharing of powers with Congress
Appointments that do not require Senate confirmation
can impeach the President for treason, bribery, and other high crimes and misdemeanors.
If the issue is purely a matter of policy then the Supreme Court, has called it "_______" and thus has not over-ruled the President's policies.
American citizens, or constitutional rights,
But when the President does something that impacts the rights of ____________ then the Supreme Court has ruled that the power of the president is not limitless.
A statement of a nation's essential objectives in world politics and the means to achieve those objectives.
When a president articulates his (or her) grand strategy it is called his
Containment of the Soviet Union. The U.S. would help any country in the world that may come under communist threat using American militarily, economically, or diplomatically powers.
Declared the Middle East to be a vital region for the U.S.
provide allies the means to fight communism themselves, with U.S. support.
terrorist states and groups will be confronted pre-emptive military strikes unilateralism (U.S. would not need permission from the UN) Democracy and liberty are universal values and are compatible with Islam. The U.S. "favors" democratic forces in the Middle East and the Islamic world American primacy
president is seen as emperor taking strong actions without consulting Congress or seeking its approval
Formal conclusion by a judge or jury on issues of fact.
A president allows the CIA or Special forces (by a piece of paper that the president wrote) to go assassinate another leader/president (Osama) and you will not be charged for murdering that person. Almost always secret. This makes the exception to executive order.
the ostentatious display of military power (with the implied threat that it might be used)
Dissuading an adversary from attacking by threatening retaliation with nuclear weapons.
the use of threats to influence the outcome of a bargaining interaction