六年级 科学 生态系统
Terms in this set (35)
(shēng tài xì tǒng) ecosystem-an area in which living things biotic interact with one another and with nonliving abiotic things
(fēi shēng wù）abiotic-the non-living parts of an ecosystem such as soil, climate, and rainfall. They affect the diversity of an ecosystem because they determine the types of plants and animals that can survive.
(shēng wù）organism-A single living organism.
(zǒng tǐ)population-A group of organisms of the same species living together in an ecosystem.
(qún tǐ）community-All of the populations living in an ecosystem. It has more diversity than a population.
(shēng wù yīn sù）biotic factor-The living parts of an ecosystem, such as bacteria, plants, and animals. Biotic comes from the Greek word "bios" which means life.
(shēng chǎn zhě）
producer-An organism that makes its own food, such as plants. Organisms that use sunlight directly to make food through a process called photosynthesis. This level provides the greatest amount of energy.
(shì hé de huán jìng)niche-The position/role of an organism in a community. No two species share the same niche, but they can share the same habitat.
(qī xī dì)habitat-The part of an ecosystem in which an organism lives. It is often shared by many species.
(duō yàng xìng）diversity-A measure of the number and variety of species in an ecosystem. The tropical rainsforests is the most diverse biome.
(xiāo fèi zhě）consumer-An organism that eats other organisms, such as animals and bacteria.
(bǔ shí zhě）predator-An organism that eats other organisms to live.
(shí ròu dòng wù）carnivore-An animal that gets its energy by eating other animals
(liè wù）prey-The organism that gets eaten.
(shí fǔ dòng wù）scavengers-animals that feed on the bodies of dead organisms.
(shí cǎo dòng wù）herbivores-Animals that eat only plants
(shí wù liàn）food chain-The series of steps by which energy is obtained, used, and transformed by living things. A sequence of connected producers and consumers. Food chains always begin with a producer.
(zá shí dòng wù)omnivores-Animals that eat both plants and meat.
(fēn jiě tǐ)decomposer-Consumers that break down plant and animal remains and waste
(shíwùwǎng) A food web is a diagram showing which animals eat which other animals in a given ecological community. It also aims to show the transfer or flow of energy and matter, such as sunlight or carbon, that occurs between species via their feeding relationships.
(néng liàng jīn zì tǎ）The energy pyramid shows the energy that is lost at each level of the food chain. Producers are at the bottom of the energy pyramid and they provide the greatest amount of energy.
(néng liàng chuán sòng）energy transfer-10 percent of energy units are transferred to the next level of the energy pyramid. 90% of the energy is lost with each step up.
(guānghézuòyòng) Photosynthesis-The food making process for producers, or plants. Plants use water, sunlight, and carbon dioxide to make sugar and release
(jì chéng)The gradual long- term change of plant species in an ecosystem.
(chū jí jìchéng)primary succession-When plants first take root in an area that has no plants, such as after a volcanic eruption.
(cì jí jì chéng)secondary succession-When most, but not all, of an area's vegetation has been removed, such as after a fire.
(yǒu jī wù)organic-Containing carbon, which is part of every organism on Earth.
（tàn xún huán）carbon cycle-The recycling of carbon compounds as solids, liquids, and gases. Burning fossil fuels increases the amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere.
(dàn xún huán )nitrogen cycle-The recycling of nitrogen in different forms between living and nonliving parts of an ecosystem. Nitrogen compounds in fertilizer can increase the growth of algae
(shēng wù qún)biome-A region of the world with a particular climate and similar types of plants and animals.
(qì hòu) climate -An abiotic factor that describes overall weather in an area over a long period of time. It determines biomes.
(shēng tài xì tǒng)Forests, deserts, grasslands, rivers, coral reefs
(luò yè lín)Deciduous forest-Biome that contains animals that hibernate and animals that migrate. It has more energy transfer in the summer than in the fall.
(yǔ lín)Tropical rainforest-Biome with the greatest diversity of species.
(shā mò)Desert-Biome that is very dry and has great ranges in temperature between day and night.
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