pain patho borghol
Terms in this set (49)
nociceptive (sharp, aching pain) after surgery, acute illness, trauma, labor, medical problems, or cancer that lasts 3-6 months (Short period of time)
what causes chronic pain?
due to acute injury or secondary to certain diseases (OA, RA)
changes to nerve function and transmission
associated with sleep disorders, anxiety, depression, poor appetite
what causes cancer pain?
acute or chronic life threatening conditions due to diseases, treatment, diagnostic procedures
describe neuropathic pain
burning, tingling, shock-like
due to trauma or disease of nerves
what are some examples of neuropathic pain?
Drugs: HIV, Cancer (cisplatin, vincristine)
give some examples of peripheral neuropathic pain
give some examples of central neuropathic pain
brain/spinal cord trauma
post herpetic neuralgia
phantom limb pain
what can cause the pain from neuropathic pain to come up?
pain is a result of injury to somatic or visceral structures
describe somatic pain and what could cause it
muscles, skin, bone
sharp, localized, throbbing
caused by surgery or bone mets
what does visceral pain feel like?
diffuse, aching, cramping
perception of pain
bare nerve endings in skin, muscle, joints, arteries and the viscera that respond to chemical, mechanical, and thermal stimuli
what are the different types of nociceptors?
unmyelinated C polymodal fibers
which fibers detect localized, fast and sharp pain?
myelinated AO fibers
which fibers detect slow, aching, poorly localized pain?
unmyelinated C polymodal fibers
what are the different types of adaptive pain?
when do you experience nociceptive pain?
touching too cold, hot, or sharp surfaces
when do you experience inflammatory pain?
pain that happens from tissue damage (trauma, surgery), creating sensation at and adjacent at the site of tissue injury (engages immune system)
what are the steps of the neurotransmission circuit in adaptive pain?
what happens during tranduction?
stimuli release cytokines and chemokines that sensitize and/or activate the nociceptors
what happens during conduction?
receptor activation via voltage gated sodium channels--> action potentials (conducted along afferent AO and c-nerve fibers to spinal cord)
what happens during transmission?
signal is transmitted through AO and unmyelinated C polymodal fibers
thalamus is relay station
what happens during perception?
it happens in higher cortical structures, becomes a conscious experience
what happens during modulation?
brain can only accommodate a limited number of pain signals
cognitive and behavioral functions can modify pain
what descending pathways inhibit pain signaling?
how do endogenous peptides modulate pain?
bind to opioid receptor sites--> modulate pain impulse transmission
how do we modulate pain through the NMDA receptors?
block the NMDA receptors--> increase U- receptor responsiveness to opioids
what is direct excitation?
threshold depolarization from direct stimuli
what is indirect excitation?
threshold depolarization from inflammatory mediators after tissue injury
what can indirect excitation cause?
hyperalgesia (more sensitive to certain pain stimuli)
Name some inflammatory mediators
calcitonin gene related peptide
name some excitatory transmitters
neurokinin A and B
calcitonin Gene-related peptides
what are the two glutamate receptors?
the NMDA receptor deals with?
memory and long term synaptic potentiation
the AMPA receptor deals with?
very fast pain
what is allodynia and how is it related to the NMDA receptor?
pain caused by stimuli that don't normally cause pain
glutamate binds to NMDA receptor--> displaces Mg+--> central sensitization--> allodynia
name some inhibitory transmitters
opioids (u, O, K receptors)
list the endogenous opioids
which endogenous opioid is a strong U receptor agonist?
which endogenous opioid is a strong K receptor agonist?
point at which a stimulus is perceived as pain
pain at one location may cause an increase in the threshold in another location
duration of time or the intensity of pain that a person will endure before initiation of pain responses
what decreases pain tolerance?
repeated exposure to pain, fatigue, anger, boredom, apprehension, and sleep deprivation
what increases pain tolerance?
strong beliefs, faith
nociceptors are functioanl by _____ weeks of gestation
how does aging increase pain threshold?
skin thickness changes
when you age, your pain tolerance increases (T/F)?
false, it decreases over time