Chapters 17 and 18: The Maritime Revolution and Transformation in Europe (By:Eileen Flood)
Terms in this set (108)
first Ming expedition consisted of 62 " treasure ships", large treasure ships( 300 FT long by 150 FT wide), 9 masts, 12 sails, many decks, carry capacity of 6 tons ,had crossbows and small canons, carried rich silks and precious metals
a new vessel one fifth the size of the largest European vessel, handle ocean storms , explore up river, small canon, lateen/square sails, it sailed by high winds and the square sails where for speed.
Order of Christ
military religious order (exclusive right to promote Christianity in all lands that were discovered)
a new gold coin that symbolized how deeply Portuguese entwined religious and secular motives.
after Columbus landed on the Caribbean he named the inhabitants Indians because he thought they were from east India.
a place where goods are stored or deposited and from which they are distributed
mariners from the Malay peninsula ( in south east Asia) explored and settles onto indies islands ( industry of Melanesia)
settled through expansion from Fiji, sailed to Hawaiian Islands, settling pacific islands
colonized by Malayo-indonesian that sailed westward across Indian ocean, Speak Malayo - Polynesian, parts of population are descendants of Africans
the Iberian Peninsula included Portuguese, castile, Aragon (which took over Granada in 1492, also known as present day Spain)
Portuguese attacked Ceuta in 1415 because Moroccan government showed weakness in the 15th century , a rich African city
headquarters of Portugal's West African trade explored by Fernao Gomes
landed by Vasco de Gama and left bad impression of Portugal's poverty
(west coast India) fell to well armed fleet base of Portugal monarchy trade of city of Gujarat (1510)
(1557) Macao became trading post for Portugal and monopolized trade between china and Japan.
kingdom of Castile
ruled by queen Isabella wither her husband king Ferdinand of Aragon
kingdom of Aragon
ruled by king Ferdinand and then joined with the Spanish kingdom of Castile
Kingdom of Granada
Once ruled by Muslims but then conquered by the Spanish leaders from the kingdom of Aragon and the Kingdom of Castile.
Kingdom of Benin
A forest Kingdom in West Africa, known for its very sophisticated bronze art from the Hausa people. Portuguese came to trade with them.
Kingdom of kongo
had a monopoly with Portugal but lacked goods but favored the slave trade-eventually people took over this weakness due to the majority of slave merchants.
a rich Indian trading port - had trader with error free calculations because of the Chinese abacus.
Admiral Zheng He
commanded Ming dynasties vast fleets, "a fitting emissary to the increasingly dominated Indian ocean basin",ancestral relations to the Persian Gulf
greatest mariners of Atlantic in middle ages, used small open ships to gain European settlements for several centuries, settle in multiple northern Atlantic islands, based navigation on heavens and seas, conquered Iceland in 770,Greenland:982 and sighted north America in 986
(1001) established Newfoundland as "Vinland"
moved lesser Antilles to greater Antilles, followed then conquered by the Caribbean, had maize cassaua sweet potatoes, hot peppers cotton tobacco mining/ working gold , lied to Columbus to move on in trails
Henry the navigator
3rd son of the king of Portugal, led attack on Ceuta; consisted of : religious crusade; plundering expedition; military tournaments, devoted to exploring of south Atlantic his motives where to convert Africans to Christianity, make contact with existing Christian rulers in Africa and launching joint crusades against ottomans, found research institute at Sagres (for studying navigation/ and info beyond Muslim North Africa)
first Portuguese explorer to round south African tip and enter the Indian ocean.
Vasco de Gama
Portuguese expedition (1497-1498) sailed around Africa and reached India
Pedro Alvares Cabral
took south Atlantic winds leading to south American coast and eventually conquered brazil for Portugal
(1451-1506) established "new world", Portuguese rejected him twice, 1486 sympathetic hearing from Castile by Queen Isabella and husband king Ferdinand (possibly because of their joy of conquering Granada at the time from the Muslims)
Vasco Nunez de balboa
1513 crossed over isthmus piece of land and saw the pacific on the other side
members of the first Portugal expedition to explore the east indies (maritime south east Asia ),1521: sailed across Atlantic ,round tip of South America, crossed the Pacific Ocean
Manikong Afonso 1
pleaded help from Portugal to stop the rise of slave trade, eventually the citizens of his state took over this crisis and was overwhelmed by the slave trade.
(1485-1547) in 1519: expedition of Mexico ( AZTECS) and brought small pox with him
(1502-1520 r.) trial to establish amiable relation with Cortes ->Cortés took over ->the Aztecs where demolished, even though most of the Spanish resistance died in battle
he took over the Incan empire (1531) he set out from Spain to conquer, arranged to meet Atahualpa November 1532, The end Of Atahualpa
Incan emperor - decision to burn or convert to Christianity was offered but he was burned, His death broke the unity of the Incan Empire.
Treaty of Tordesillas
(papal proposal) this drew an imaginary line down the Atlantic Ocean, south Asia and east Africa was Portugal's claim and Americas where Spain's property.
The central administration of the Roman Catholic Church of which the pope is the head.
S: The central government of latin christianity.
a release from all or part of punishment for sin by the catholic church reducing time in purgatory after death
S: this was a way for the catholic church to make easy money.
Salvation by faith Alone
That was one of Luther's fundamental beliefs that salvation was to be attained by faith alone.
S: He did not like the idea of indulgences.
a formal decree by a pope sealed with a round leaden seal
God decided in advance which people would attain salvation after death
Society of Jesus
A Roman Catholic order to defend Catholicism against the Reformation and to do missionary work.
Church of England
Church created in England as a result of a political dispute between Henry VIII and thePope would not let Henry divorce his wife
S: Similar to catholic church except they were allowed to divorce.
a form of government in which the ruler is an absolute dictator
S: Louis XIV's gigantic new palace at Versailles can be seen as a theme park for absolutism.
British legislature,keeps the king in check.
S:The Bill of Rights of 1689 speciﬁed that Parliament had to be called frequently and had to consent to changes in laws and to the raising of an army in peacetime.,
the Estates General represented the traditional rights of the clergy the nobility, and the towns (that
is, the bourgeoisie)
the Spanish fleet that attempted to invade England ending in disaster.
S: This is viewed as the decline of Spains Golden Age, and the rise of England as a world naval power.
Balance of power
the balance of power in international relations: the major European states formed temporary alliances to prevent any one state from becoming too powerful
S:The balance of powers in the English model would be
widely admired in later times
educated middle class of France
S: provided force behind the Revolution
"the deserving poor"
many rural poor migrated to the towns and cities in hopes of better jobs but only some were successful. They were too poor to tax.
S: the "deserving poor," made upB10 to 20 percent of population in dutch towns
"the unworthy poor"
"unworthy poor"—recent migrants from impoverished rural areas peddlers traveling from place to place, and beggars (many with horrible deformities and sores) who tried to survive on charity
A dowry was the money and household goods—the amount varied by social class—that enabled a young couple to begin marriage independent of their parents
joint stock company
A company made up of a group of shareholders. Each shareholder contributes some money to the company and receives some share of the company's profits and debts.
A place where shares in a company or business enterprise are bought and sold.
a large-capacity cargo ship developed in the 1590s.
Dutch ports built their own vast ﬂeets and other ships for export.
the removal of trees
rural men made a living as miners lumberjacks, and charcoal makers. The expanding iron industry
in England provided work for all three, but the high consumption of wood fuel for this and other purposes
caused serious deforestation.
people of standing(rank or position) ,people of good family or high social position
The gentry loaned money to impoverished
peasants and to members of the nobility and in time increased their ownership of land.
Transformations in Europe, beliefs in widows who were susceptible to evil mostly in protestant areas, prosecuted and killed almost anyone who was accused
-A huge witch scare showed the power of Christian beliefs about the Devil and traditional folklore about malevolent powers.
he idea that the earth and the other planets revolve around the sun.
created by copernicus ,challenged the popular belief that the earth was the center.
Pope Leo X
began to sell indulgences to raise money to rebuild St. Peter's Basilica in Rome.
- tried to get Luther to recant his criticisms of the church banned his ideas and excommunicated him from the church
a German monk who became one of the most famous critics of the Roman Catholic Church.
- In 1517 he wrote 95 theses, or statements of belief attacking the church practices.
French humanist whose theological writings profoundly influenced religious thoughts of Europeans.
- Developed Calvinism at Geneva. Wrote Institutes of Christian Religion
the Habsburgs the powerful family of Austria
the powerful family of Austria
-Charles V (1519-1556) to be the new emperor. Like his predecessors for three generations, Charles belonged to the powerful Habsburg
Emperor charles V
Charles hoped to centralize his imperial
power After decades of bitter squabbles turned to open warfare in 1546 (the German Wars of Religion) Charles ﬁnally gave up his efforts at uniﬁcation, abdicated control of his various possessions to different heirs, and retired to a monastery
King Phillip II
King of Spain from 1556- 1598 was a powerful monarch and strong defender of the Catholic faith, started the Spanish Armada, but was defeated
King Henry IV
Prince Henry of Navarre then embraced the Catholic faith of the majority of his subjects. In their embrace of a union of church and state the new Bourbon king, Henry IV, his son King Louis XIII, and his
grandson King Louis XIV were as supportive of the
Catholic Church as their counterparts in Spain.
King Henry VIII
King of England from 1509 to 1547 and founder of the Church of England, he broke with the Catholic Church because the pope would not grant him a divorce.
king of France from 1643 to 1715, his long reign was marked by the expansion of French influence in Europe and by the magnificence of his court and the Palace of Versailles
King Charles I
Reigned for 11 years he caused a civil war in England that would ultimately claim his own life it was caused by his dismissal of the English Parliament in 1629
English general and statesman who led the parliamentary army in the English Civil War
Queen Elizabeth I
This "virgin" queen ruled England for 50 years and was one of the most successful monarchs in English History.
-She supported the arts increased the treasury, supported the exploration of the New World, built up the military, and established the Church of England as the main religion in England
Developed the first modern theory of a sun-centered universe
-named heliocentric theory
This scientist proved Copernicus' theory that the sun was the center of the solar system and developed the modern experimental method.
Defined the laws of motion and gravity. Tried to explain motion of the universe.
This English philosophe argued that all men were born with natural rights and that a government's purpose was to protect these rights
Holy Roman Empire
Religious divisions due to the Reformation and religious wars in 16th and 17th centuries split Germany among Catholic Gave way to new empires
Ottoman Turks Muslims
that took over Constantinople in 1453.
United Provinces of Free Netherlands
the United Netherlands emerged as the dominant commercial power in Europe and the world's greatest trading nation
The protestant reformation
Luther burned the papal bull (document) of condemnation rejecting the pope's authority and beginning the movement known as the Protestant Reformation.
the catholic reformation
The council reafﬁrmed the supremacy of
the pope and called for a number of reforms including
requiring each bishop to reside in his diocese and each
diocese to have a theological seminary to train priests.
Also important to this Catholic Reformation were the
activities of a new religious order—the Society of Jesus,
This violent conversion of Spain back into Catholicism. They used several versions of torture and fear tactics to convert people back to Catholicism
French Wars of Religion
Long term struggle between Catholic's and Protestants
English Civil War
civil war in England between the Parliamentarians and the Royalists under Charles I
A reference to the political events of 1688-1689 when James II abdicated his throne and was replaced by his daughter Mary and her husband, Prince William of Orange.
The little ice age
During this Little Ice Age average temperatures fell only a few degrees but the effects were startling. , lasted from 1250 to 1850. It was the time where settlements in Greenland disappeared, and the population of Iceland fell by half. There were many crop failures due to the more severe winters.
an era between 16th and 18th centuries when scientists began doing research in a new way using the scientific method
The belief that human reason could discover the
laws that governed social behavior and were just as scientiﬁc as the laws that governed physics energized a movement known as the Enlightenment
The Peace of Augsburg
treaty that ended the Peasants Revolt kept the German states separated
The edict of Nantes
a 1598 declaration in which the french king Henry IV promised that protestants could live in peace in France and could set up houses of worship in some French cities
English bill of rights (1689)
English Bill of Rights (1689): Repeats some of early docs (trials and say in taxes) but added right free speech in parliament, to bear arms, no cruel and unusual punishment, and no Catholic king.
St. Peter's Basilica
needed renovations= payed for by indulgences many people contributed to it, located in Vadican city, Baroque architect finishes it, dome is in segments with lantern on top, pedimented windows on dome, paired columns on dome
The institutes of the Christian Religion
As a young man Calvin published the Institutes of the Christian Religion, a masterful synthesis of Christian teachings, in 1535. Much of the Institutes was traditional medieval theology, but Calvin's teaching differed from that of Roman Catholics
Palace constructed by Louis XIV outside of Paris to glorify his rule and subdue the nobility.
Second treatise of Civil Government
Written by John Locke it contains the blueprint principles found in the Declaration of Independence.
1. Compare Indian Ocean and Atlantic Ocean maritime trade from 770 - 1450. Create a chart.
Trade in the Indian Ocean was safe and easy due to the Indian peninsula that stretches out into the middle of the ocean and provides a coastline to navigate along and coves that could be used by seafarers to get protection from storms. The monsoons helped navigation in the Indian Ocean because they were so predictable and could be used to the advantage of sailors or could be avoided and thus the sailing here was easier and less dangerous than anywhere else. The Atlantic Ocean maritime trade was not the center of trading the Indian Ocean was, due to the fact that it was largely unexplored. The most prevalent mariner groups in the Atlantic Ocean in the Middle Ages were the Vikings. In the act of sailing along the European coast they discovered many new lands such as Iceland in 770, Greenland in 982, and parts of North America in 986. Navigation was not a skill used by the Vikings. They found their way through by knowledge of the heavens, which made their travels easy for them.
2. In regards to maritime trade, list the four trends evident in the Latin West since 1000 that led to more European expansion AND list the two reasons why the Italian state did NOT take the lead in exploring the Atlantic.
1-the revival of urban life and trade
2-a struggle with Islamic powers for dominance of the Mediter-ranean that mixed religious motives with the desire fortrade with distant lands
3-growing intellectual curiosity about the outside world, and
4-a peculiarly Euro-pean alliance between merchants and rulers.
There were two reasons why Italian states did not take the lead in exploring the Atlantic. The ﬁrst was that the trading states of Venice and Genoa preferredto continue the system of alliances with the Muslims thathad given their merchants privileged access to the lucra-tive trade from the East. The second was that the ships of the Mediterranean were ill suited to the more violent weather of the Atlantic.
3. List the nautical achievements of the Portuguese.
Between 1415-1578, Portugal explored the Atlantic Ocean, discovering several Atlantic archipelagos like the Azores, Madeira, or Cape Verde, explored the African coast as well as colonizing selected areas of Africa, discovered an eastern route to India that rounded the Cape of Good Hope, discovered Brazil, explored the Indian Ocean and established trading routes throughout most of southern Asia, and sent the first direct European maritime trade and diplomatic missions to China and Japan.
4. Outline in timeline form the developments of Portuguese in West Africa and the Indian Ocean between 1470 - 1550.
1415 - Conquest of city of Ceuta in northern Africa
1419 - Madeira Islands re-discovered
1427 - Azores Islands discovered by Diogo Silves.
1433 - Duarte I becomes king.
1434 - Gil Eanes crosses the Cape Bojador exploration of the West African coast begins.
1438 - Afonso V of Portugal becomes king.
1444/1460 - Discovery and settling of Cape Verde islands.
1481 -Joao II becomes king.
1484 - Diogo Cão discovers the Congo river.
1491 - Bartolomeu Dias becomes the first European captain to cross the Cape of Good Hope.
1494 - The Treaty of Tordesilhas signed between Spain and Portugal, dividing the world.
1495 -Manuel I becomes king.
1498 - Vasco da Gama reaches India.
1500 - Easter Day - Pedro Álvares Cabral discovers Brazil.
Manuel I orders expulsion or conversion of the Portuguese Jews.
1511 - Invasion and conquest of Malacca.
1515 - Afonso de Albuquerque captures Hormuz.
1521 - João III of Portugal becomes king.
1521 - Antonio Correia captures Bahrain
1542 - Portuguese explorers are the first Europeans to land in Japan.
5. List the effects (at least 8) of Spanish conquest of the Americas.
1-The Spanish conquests brought European civilization to the tribes of North and South America.
2-Disrupted the existing societies.
3-Lead to exploitation or enslavement in the civilizations existing there.
4-Disease wiped out a majority of the population.
5-The population was no longer solely Native American, but integrated with the Spanish.
6-Roman Catholic faith became part of their culture.
7-The Spanish language became used Latin America and some islands of the Caribbean.
8-A new hierarchy was established within the culture.
1. Compare the religious theories of Luther and Calvin.
Martin Luther's and Calvin's ideas are alike because they both agreed that religious authority rested on the Bible not the Pope and believed in a priesthood of all believers. Martin Luther and Calvin's ideas are also alike because both believed in St. Augustine's idea of predestination. Calvin did not believe that the Church should be ruled by the state, while Luther believed that it should.
2. Cite five reasons that make Charles V such a significant ruler.
1-The lottery of birth placed Charles at the center of a genealogical network that covered half Europe. His father, Philip, was Duke of Burgundy. His grandfather was Emperor Maximilian of Austria. His mother, Joanna, was daughter of Isabella and Ferdinand, Spain's Catholic monarchs.
2-The reign of Charles V coincides with the beginning of the Modern Age and is marked by the Renaissance, by the spread of printed material, the discovery of the Americas, and by the Reformation started by Martin Luther.
3-Through his mother, he would inherit Spain and the bloodstained kingdom of Naples as well.
4-Charles, archduke of Austria and King of Spain becomes Emperor Charles V, the most powerful ruler in Europe. As the King of Spain, Naples and Sicily, Emperor of the Holy Roman Empire, ruler of Flanders, the Netherlands and large areas of Central and South America, the sun virtually never set on Charles empire.
5-For the first time, Europe became the center of a world empire, unified under Charles V.
3. Compare and contrast absolutism and constitutionalism.
Absolutism is a centralized form of government where power lied solely in the monarch. While in constitutionalism, the government was controlled by more than just the monarch, and followed a set of rules and guidelines to govern the country with.
4. How did war in Europe change between 1500 - 1750?
It proved to Europe that armoured knights were not invincible. Up until this point armoured knights on horseback were seen to be the best soldiers in an army and undefeatable by infantry. English victories such as Crecy and Poitiers proved that common men (archers) could defeat mounted knights with the correct planning.
However, as it saw the rise of the English archer it also saw the demise as the French learnt how to defeat the weapon by charging quickly and by not engaging in open warfare.
The Hundred Years War also involved many different directions for warfare. It involved sieges, open battle and chevauee (double check) where the English pillaged the French lands of Brittany.
5. List the characteristics of the Dutch trade during this era.
The Dutch had large merchant and shipping fleets. In 1670, about ten per cent of Dutch adult males were sailors; - the Dutch had more ships than England, France, Germany, Portugal, Scotland, and Spain combined. They grew to become a major naval power and monopolized trade with Japan.
6. Compare the theories of Copernicus, Galileo, and Newton.
They all believed that the sun was at the center of our solar system.
COPERNICUS realized that the rising and setting of the Sun, Moon, and stars could be accounted for by a daily revolution of the Earth. Also, he found that if he put the Sun at the center of the planet's orbits he could simplify the number of epicycles from 80 in Ptolemy's system to a mere 34. Although epicycles do not exist, Copernicus' intuition was correct. His idea that the Earth and planets orbited about the sun became know as the "heliocentric theory."
GALILEO used the newly-invented telescope to make his own observations. He studied mountains and craters on the Earth's moon, the phases of Venus, and the moons of Jupiter. Particularly he noted that Venus at times appears to be a crescent, just as the Earth's moon does. All of these findings supported Copernicus' heliocentric theory.
NEWTON lived in England. Newton derived the law of gravitation between two masses. Since the Sun was the most massive object in the planetary system, all of the planets would naturally be attracted to it and revolve around it, in the same manner as the Moon revolves around the Earth. Newton eventually wrote about gravitation and the heliocentric theory in Principia Mathematica in 1687, at the prompting of another famous astronomer, Edmund Halley (1656-1742) . Halley used Newton's equations to predict that a comet seen in 1682 would return in 1758. The return of Halley's comet gave final proof to the heliocentric theory.
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