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Geos 101 Lab Final
Terms in this set (34)
How old is the Earth?
4.6 billion years old
Why would it be hard to outline the history of the United States on the geologic time scale?
Its too small on the scale
What are the 3 sections that geologic time is broken into, in the order from largest to smallest?
Eon, Era, Period
Draw a diagram showing a fault, an earthquake epicenter, and an earthquake hypocenter.
What are the relationships among earthquakes, faults, and energy?
Faults build up energy when energy is released we call it an earthquake
What type of boundary does the San Andreas Fault represent?
What geologic indicators would you expect to see at a convergent plate boundary? Three examples.
Deep earthquakes, mountains, andesitic volcanoes, coastline, trench, plutons deep underground
What are the three types of plate boundaries? Draw the corresponding arrows.
What is the difference between elastic strain and brittle strain? What is an example of each in everyday life?
Elastic strain: A temporary strain that lasts only as long as the differential stress lasts. When you take away the differential stress, any elastic strain disappears and the rock goes back to its elastic shape; rubber band
Brittle strain: A permanent strain that involves breaking and cracking; breaking a mug.
Define stress and strain. What is the difference between stress and strain?
Pressures exerted on the rocks inside the earth, similar to pressures experienced by divers deep under water
A change in the shape of the rock body caused by differential stress. A rock may get shorter and thicker or a rock may be bent.
What is the difference between a mineral and a rock?
Minerals are what make up a rock.
Name three ways of identifying a mineral.
Hardness test, color, luster, cleavage, streak, taste, reaction to HCl
Name one mineral found in a felsic rock.
Quartz, biotite (mica), potassium feldspar, plagioclase feldspar, hornblende
According to a geologist, what are the five characteristics of a mineral?
Definitive chemical composition
Orderly internal structure
What are the two classifications for sedimentary rocks/sediment? How do you distinguish between the two?
Detrital never dissolves in water, sorting and rounding of grains and sediment/clasts
Chemical dissolves in water, mineralogy of sediment
What are the two different types of igneous rocks? Describe key characteristics.
Volcanic (Extrusive)—Small crystals due to fast cooling time on Earth's surface
Plutonic (Intrusive)—Visible crystals due to slow cooling beneath Earth's surface
Name and describe the two mechanisms that produce metamorphic rocks? Which one causes foliation in a rock?
Regional—pressure and heat!
Draw the rock cycle.
What do contour lines represent? What is a contour interval?
A line on a map joining points of equal height above or below sea level.
The vertical drop (or climb) between two contour lines.
Draw examples of a volcanic and plutonic rock units that would be on a geologic map.
Field Trip #1: What sedimentary rocks make up the Tuscan Formation? Name all three types that we saw.
Conglomerate, breccia, and sandstone
Field Trip #2: Put the four rock units (Ione, Sierran Basement, Tuscan, and Lovejoy) in order by age from youngest to oldest. For one of the units, name one rock (besides the Tuscan Formation).
Tuscan, Lovejoy (Basalt), Ione (Sandstone, claystone, and conglomerate), Sierran Basement (limestone, phyllite, and gneiss)
Name 3 rocks in the Tuscan formation
Sandstone, breccia, and conglomerate
Name a rock in the Lovejoy
Name 3 rocks in the Ione
Sandstone, claystone, and conglomerate
Name 3 rocks in the Sierran Basement
limestone, phyllite, and gneiss
What is the protolith and Mineral Composition of Marble
Parent Rock: Limestone
What is the protolith and Mineral Composition of Quartzite
What is the protolith and Mineral Composition of Schist
What is the protolith and Mineral Composition of Phyllite
Mineral: Quartz, Feldspar, Mica
What is the protolith and Mineral Composition of Gneiss
Mineral: Quartz, Feldspar and other mafic
What is the protolith and Mineral Composition of Serpentinite
What is the protolith and Mineral Composition of Greenstone
What is the protolith and Mineral Composition of Slate