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45 terms


The sun and Earths interior heat
What are the two fundamental sources of energy that drive the Earths system
Half Life
The time required for half of the nuclei in a radioactive sample of matter to decay is called?
The era that represents about 85% of geologic time
The color that is the highest surface temperature of a star.
Sedimentary Rock
What is a chronological history of life on earth?
Consensus of like minded people
The scientific method depends on what in order to function properly.
The most common mineral in the Earths's continental crust is?
Perovskite is a silicate that makes up about .... of the Earth volume
Inner core of the earth
Dense forms of crystalline iron and nickel are major components of the?
60,000 years old
The half life of carbon 14 is roughly 5,730 years. This radioactive element is used to date fossils and rocks that are younger than
3.9 billion years ago
The radioactive isotope dating of marine sedimentary rock from the surface of the Earth tells us that oceans were present.
4.6 billion years
The present accepted age of the Earth is
First billion years of Earth's history
The conversion of the homogeneous Proto-Earth to the highly differentiated Earth of today occurred in the
liquid outer core
Earths magnetic field is a self-generating and self reversing dynamo in the.
The most common mineral in the Earth's continental crust is.
late Paleozoic time period
The great southern hemisphere glaciations that affected parts of Africa, South America, India, Australia, and Antarctica occurred.
Growing evidence indicates that very large volumes of water were delivered to the early Earth from
The desert pavement
is formed by deflation and sheet wash removed from fine, resized materials leaving coarse, weathered rock fragments concentrated at the surface.
Coriolis Effect
, surface ocean currents are deflected to the right of their path of motion in the Northern Hemisphere because of the
Antarctic Continental Shelf
Most of the world's ocean is filled with bottom water originating on the
Trade winds
The North and South Equatorial Currents derive energies primarily from
El Nino
brought on when low pressure develops in the Eastern Equatorial Pacific Ocean.
, polar jet streams are deflected northward into Canada, sub-tropical jet streams are forced from the Caribbean Sea into continental North America, a large body of warm water is moved from the north of Australia into the eastern Pacific Ocean, and the Peru Current is greatly diminished or destroyed.
With the development of a strong El Nino condition in the southeastern Pacific Ocean.
Several islands and hills in the Boston area are elliptical and elongated in a north-south direction. Till is common in the area. The hills and islands are most likely
A current moving towards the equator is
deep sound minimum.
The deep sound channel in the ocean corresponds closely with the
carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen.
Major constituents of organic matter include
Amount of the earths surface water is frozen in glaciers.
bed load
The largest material that can carried by a stream is carried as
The ultimate level to which a land surface may be eroded in extreme old age, given time and tectonic stability is
Reflective quality of a surface is known as its
nitrogen dioxide
The main ingredient in photochemical smog is
electromagnetic wave
Sound is not an
Heavy metals and synthetic organics
are two major categories of potentially toxic chemicals
pressure gradient force
The primary force which causes all wind is
Air Flow
is initiated by pressure gradient force
Life is possible on earth primarily because this shields the surface from harmful radiation
less dense
The atmosphere becomes... with increasing altitude
Natural sources of air pollution include
About what percent of the incoming solar radiation reaches Earth's surface
Consists of a mixture of gasses that behave as ifit were a single gas
5mm every year
At the present time, sea level is rising approximately
subtropical high
The Sahara and Australia deserts are associated with the
circulations in the earth's atmosphere
are fundamentally caused by temperature contrasts between different locations
automobile exhaust
The primary source of nitrogen oxide pollution is