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The sun and Earths interior heat

What are the two fundamental sources of energy that drive the Earths system

Half Life

The time required for half of the nuclei in a radioactive sample of matter to decay is called?


The era that represents about 85% of geologic time


The color that is the highest surface temperature of a star.

Sedimentary Rock

What is a chronological history of life on earth?

Consensus of like minded people

The scientific method depends on what in order to function properly.


The most common mineral in the Earths's continental crust is?


Perovskite is a silicate that makes up about .... of the Earth volume

Inner core of the earth

Dense forms of crystalline iron and nickel are major components of the?

60,000 years old

The half life of carbon 14 is roughly 5,730 years. This radioactive element is used to date fossils and rocks that are younger than

3.9 billion years ago

The radioactive isotope dating of marine sedimentary rock from the surface of the Earth tells us that oceans were present.

4.6 billion years

The present accepted age of the Earth is

First billion years of Earth's history

The conversion of the homogeneous Proto-Earth to the highly differentiated Earth of today occurred in the

liquid outer core

Earths magnetic field is a self-generating and self reversing dynamo in the.


The most common mineral in the Earth's continental crust is.

late Paleozoic time period

The great southern hemisphere glaciations that affected parts of Africa, South America, India, Australia, and Antarctica occurred.


Growing evidence indicates that very large volumes of water were delivered to the early Earth from

The desert pavement

is formed by deflation and sheet wash removed from fine, resized materials leaving coarse, weathered rock fragments concentrated at the surface.

Coriolis Effect

, surface ocean currents are deflected to the right of their path of motion in the Northern Hemisphere because of the

Antarctic Continental Shelf

Most of the world's ocean is filled with bottom water originating on the

Trade winds

The North and South Equatorial Currents derive energies primarily from

El Nino

brought on when low pressure develops in the Eastern Equatorial Pacific Ocean.

, polar jet streams are deflected northward into Canada, sub-tropical jet streams are forced from the Caribbean Sea into continental North America, a large body of warm water is moved from the north of Australia into the eastern Pacific Ocean, and the Peru Current is greatly diminished or destroyed.

With the development of a strong El Nino condition in the southeastern Pacific Ocean.


Several islands and hills in the Boston area are elliptical and elongated in a north-south direction. Till is common in the area. The hills and islands are most likely


A current moving towards the equator is

deep sound minimum.

The deep sound channel in the ocean corresponds closely with the

carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen.

Major constituents of organic matter include


Amount of the earths surface water is frozen in glaciers.

bed load

The largest material that can carried by a stream is carried as


The ultimate level to which a land surface may be eroded in extreme old age, given time and tectonic stability is


Reflective quality of a surface is known as its

nitrogen dioxide

The main ingredient in photochemical smog is

electromagnetic wave

Sound is not an

Heavy metals and synthetic organics

are two major categories of potentially toxic chemicals

pressure gradient force

The primary force which causes all wind is

Air Flow

is initiated by pressure gradient force


Life is possible on earth primarily because this shields the surface from harmful radiation

less dense

The atmosphere becomes... with increasing altitude


Natural sources of air pollution include


About what percent of the incoming solar radiation reaches Earth's surface


Consists of a mixture of gasses that behave as ifit were a single gas

5mm every year

At the present time, sea level is rising approximately

subtropical high

The Sahara and Australia deserts are associated with the

circulations in the earth's atmosphere

are fundamentally caused by temperature contrasts between different locations

automobile exhaust

The primary source of nitrogen oxide pollution is

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