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Arts and Humanities
History of Europe
world history chapter 16 (easy test)
Terms in this set (94)
1-established civil authority
2-1st self governing document in America
2 aspects of the Mayflower Compact
purify the Anglican Church
did the colonies (at first) practice separation of church and state?
England had been focusing on other parts of the world
after a series of wars, England's attitude toward American colonies changed. how?
issued a series of taxes to pay for the war (150-colonies "alone")
England went bankrupt after the seven years war so they did what?
passed laws restricting colonial trade (mercantilism)
after the seven years war, England ___
"taxation without representation"
Boston Tea Party quote
king during the American revolution
-believed their English rights had been violated-cry "taxation without representation"
-many remained loyal until actual fighting broke out (many were divided ill the colonies)
describe the colonies' attitude toward the war
olive branch petition
written by the colonists; addressed to the king of England; stop parliaments abuse of power
July 4, 1776
declaration of independence date
1-king refused to read it
2-he told the British army to treat the colonists as enemies
what two things happened in result of the olive branch petition?
Lexington and concord
where was the first battle/shot of the American revolution?
"shot fired heard round the world"
lexington and concord battle quote
leader/commander of the continental army
England hired/england divided; German mercenaries
___ came in and aided the colonists in the war after they won the battle of Saratoga
when France came in and aided the colonists in the war after the battle of Saratoga
what was the turning point of the American revolution?
British commander during the American revolution
what year was the treaty of Paris signed?
the treaty of Paris was signed ___ years after the war
america chose a ___ form of government--___
shared powers between state and federal level; some to federal and some to state
america is ___--powers are shared; representatives (government)
consent of the governed
bill of rights
1st 10 amendments: protect individual rights
what year was the constitution ratified?
executive, legislative, and judicial
name the 3 branches of government in America
-executive: president; enforces the law
-legislative: congress; creates/makes the law
-judicial: Supreme Court/court system; interprets the law
describe the 3 branches of government in America
the political and social order in France before the French Revolution
the first estate (France):
-_1_ of the roman catholic church
-exempted from _2_
-controlled large amounts of _3_
the second estate (France):
-exempted from most of the _2_
the third estate (France):
-comprised _2_% of the population
-lawyers, doctors, bankers, and wealthy businessmen
-rest were peasants (_3_%)
-peasants bore the heaviest _4_ burden (most were common laborers)
louis XV and
louis XVI (wife was Marie Antoinette)
what two weak kings ruled over france before/during the revolution who allowed France to fall into ruins?
france had an unbalanced _1_ system; the _2_ were exempted
tax on personal property
tax on each person
nobility, clergy, and wealthy middle class either purchased or were exempt from the ___ in France
louis XVI called a meeting and wanted the people to choose representatives to bring a list of their grievances, called ___
louis XVI would not allow votes to be counted separately
what was the main issue of the meeting called by Louis XVI in France (cahiers)
tennis court oath
citizens of the third estate in France declared that they would not disband until a written constitution was established (after the cahier)
July 14, 1789
the date for the storming of the Bastille (mobs angered by high prices for food, started rioting and looting)
1-stormed the Bastille
2-murdered some of the kings guards
3-forced the king and his family back to Paris
mobs protesting food shortages (3 reasons)
2-political inefficiency (weak kings)
3 reasons for discontent in France
1-listed natural rights
2-rights possessed by all citizens
what two things did the declaration of the rights of man in France do?
paper money (issued by the assembly) backed by the value of land
1-it placed the church under state control
2-it provided for the election of clergy by the state
3-it required the clergy to take an oath of loyalty to the state
what three things did the civil constitution of the clergy do?
constitution and a legislative assembly
france's king became limited by a ___ and ___
advocated radical changes in assembly in France
name three Jacobins
without breeches; Paris workers
___ declared war on Austria
issued by Austria; given to French people; must serve French king
___ abolished the monarchy in France and proclaimed year one of the French Republic
January 21, 1793
louis XVI was executed on ___
to get rid of all opposition to the revolution
what was the purpose of the reign of terror?
committee of public safety was led by ___
executed many; largest percentage were peasants
levee en masse
citizens taking an active part in the war effort (citizens going to war in mass) (France)
coalition (of nations)
a temporary alliance of nations (fought against citizens
___ army won a series of victories over the coalition in France
what was established at the end of the national convention?
1-two chamber legislature
2-executive branch: group of 5 men called directors
3-placed France in the hands of Napoleon
the establishment of the directory did what three things?
strong influence on Europe; members of directory became jealous of his popularity
the members of the directory directed Napoleon to invade _1_, but he attacked _2_ instead; _3_ (British) destroyed fresh fleet at Alexandria
sudden illegal seizure of power
3 man modeled after the roman government
who was named first consul for life in France?
what was napoleon's greatest contribution?
unified code of French laws
senate proclaimed Napoleon ___ of France
notre dame cathedral
napoleon's crowning ceremony took place in the ___
to concur all of Europe
what was napoleon's goal?
what was the chief obstacle in between Napoleon and his goal?
___ encountered french fleet at cape of trafalgar and defeated them there
confederation of the Rhine
composed of western German states under napoleon's protection
designed to cut off trade with England by blocking off ports in other European countries
battle of Austerlitz
napoleon's greatest triumph
some European's felt that the French (during the reign of Napoleon) were ___
the French became opposed when Napoleon replaced national rulers with ___
spanish for "little wars"
czar alexander I
czar of Russia during the time of Napoleon
Napoleon's army during the war against Russia
russia retreated and drew the grand army keeping into Russia; Russian army practiced scorched earth policy (burned everything in their path that could be of use to the enemy); left Moscow abandoned
what did Russia do during the battle against Napoleon?
Napoleon's forces were defeated at Leipzig Germany--battle of ___
___ forced Napoleon to step down
"emperor of the isle of Elba"
during his first banishment, Napoleon was called ___
Napoleon escaped from Elba--battle of ___--defeated by duke of Wellington
napoleon's last banishment was to ___
-protestant puritan heritage of the Americans helped protect America from the destruction of the French Revolution
-recognized the responsibility that accompanies liberty
-was a political revolution
-was a social revolution
compare the French and American revolutions
true liberty does not come through revolution by ___
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The excerpt would be most useful to historians as a source of information about which of the following? (A) Advances in military technology that led to European dominance in the fourteenth century (B) Competition for trade that led to conflicts and rivalries among European powers (C) The religious motives for European exploration of overseas territories (D) The commercial motives for European exploration of overseas territories