US History: Post WW2, Boom, and Civil Rights
Terms in this set (40)
Became president when FDR died; gave the order to drop the atomic bomb
Truman and Civil Rights (integration)
Was the first president to initiate the fight for civil rights by desegregating the armed forces and introducing civil rights legislation in Congress., The civil rights desegregated the military wanted civil rights for blacks passed a law on lynchings, Fair Employment Practices Commission: end racial discrimination in federal hiring
Dwight D. Eisenhower
American General who began in North Africa and became the Commander of Allied forces in Europe.
Forms of communication, such as newspapers and radio, that reach millions of people.
Election of 1960
Brought about the era of political television. Between Kennedy and Nixon. Issues centered around the Cold War and economy. Kennedy argued that the nation faces serious threats from the soviets. Nixon countered that the US was on the right track under the current administration. Kennedy won by a narrow margin.
John F. Kennedy
President of the US during the Bay of Pigs Invasion and the Cuban Missile Crisis
Civil Rights Legislation
Prohibits discrimination of protected classes based on gender, race, color, religion, and national origin. it is enforced by the EEOC, and applies to employers with 15 or more employees
Lyndon B. Johnson
signed the civil rights act of 1964 into law and the voting rights act of 1965. he had a war on poverty in his agenda. in an attempt to win, he set a few goals, including the great society, the economic opportunity act, and other programs that provided food stamps and welfare to needy famillies. he also created a department of housing and urban development. his most important legislation was probably medicare and medicaid.
the chief justice that overturned Plessy v. Ferguson in Brown v. Board of Education (1954); he was the first justice to help the civil rights movement, judicial activism
1964 - Miranda held that a person arrested for a crime must be advised of his right to remain silent and to have an attorney before being questioned by the police. Escobedo held that an accused can reassert these rights at any time, even if he had previously agreed to talk to the police.
Martin Luther King Jr.
U.S. Baptist minister and civil rights leader. A noted orator, he opposed discrimination against blacks by organizing nonviolent resistance and peaceful mass demonstrations. He was assassinated in Memphis, Tennessee. Nobel Peace Prize (1964)
Robert F. Kennedy
He ran for President in 1968; stirred a response from workers, African Americans, Hispanics, and younger Americans; would have captured Democratic nomination but was assassinated by Sirhan Sirhan after victory speech during the California primary in June 1968.
Plessy v. Ferguson
a 1896 Supreme Court decision which legalized state ordered segregation so long as the facilities for blacks and whites were equal
Brown v. Board of Education
1954 - The Supreme Court overruled Plessy v. Ferguson, declared that racially segregated facilities are inherently unequal and ordered all public schools desegregated.
Little Rock Nine
In September 1957 the school board in Little rock, Arkansas, won a court order to admit nine African American students to Central High a school with 2,000 white students. The governor ordered troops from Arkansas National Guard to prevent the nine from entering the school. The next day as the National Guard troops surrounded the school, an angry white mob joined the troops to protest the integration plan and to intimidate the AA students trying to register. The mob violence pushed Eisenhower's patience to the breaking point. He immediately ordered the US Army to send troops to Little Rock to protect and escort them for the full school year.
United States civil rights leader who refused to give up her seat on a bus to a white man in Montgomery (Alabama) and so triggered the national civil rights movement (born in 1913)
Montgomery Bus Boycott
In 1955, after Rosa Parks was arrested for refusing to give up her seat on a city bus, Dr. Martin L. King led a boycott of city busses. After 11 months the Supreme Court ruled that segregation of public transportation was illegal.
SCLC (Southern Christian Leadership Conference)
group of mostly African American ministers who worked to fight injustice through nonviolence
protests by black college students, 1960-1961, who took seats at "whites only" lunch counters and refused to leave until served; in 1960 over 50,000 participated in sit-ins across the South. Their success prompted the formation of the Student Non-Violent Coordinating Committee.
SNCC (Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee)
group formed by student activists; used the sit-in as an effective method of protest
a series of political protests against segregation by Blacks and Whites who rode buses together through the American South in 1961
Alabama city against equal rights; peaceful marches in 1963 were broken up brutally by city police.
Letter from Birmingham Jail
A letter written by Martin Luther King Jr. after he had been arrested when he took part in a nonviolent march against segregation. He was disappointed more Christians didn't speak out against racism.
16th Street Baptist Church Bombing
Church that was bombed by the KKK two weeks after the march on Washington, killing 4 teenage girls
"I have a dream"
This speech by Martin Luther King Jr. during the March on Washington focused on civil rights.
He was the chief of police of Birmingham, Alabama during the Civil Rights Movement. His use of excessive force against the peaceful marchers on television brought attention to the issue, and helped gain support for civil right legislation.
Director of the NAACP in Mississippi and a lawyer who defended accused Blacks, he was murdered in his driveway by a member of the Ku Klux Klan.
March on Washington
held in 1963 to show support for the Civil Rights Bill in Congress. Martin Luther King gave his famous "I have a dream..." speech. 250,000 people attended the rally
Civil Rights Act of 1964
outlawed discrimination based on race, color, religion, sex, or national origin
1964 effort to register African American voters in Mississippi
Selma, Alabama (importance of TV)
location of the start of the voting rights march that came to be known as Bloody Sunday
Voting Rights Act of 1965
a law designed to help end formal and informal barriers to African-American suffrage
De facto segregation v. de jure segregation
De jure segregation- separation of people on the basis of race as required by by law
De facto segregation- Racial separation that exists as a matter of custom rather than as a legal requirement.
1952; renamed himself X to signify the loss of his African heritage; converted to Nation of Islam in jail in the 50s, became Black Muslims' most dynamic street orator and recruiter; his beliefs were the basis of a lot of the Black Power movement built on seperationist and nationalist impulsesto achieve true independence and equality
A black political organization that was against peaceful protest and for violence if needed. The organization marked a shift in policy of the black movement, favoring militant ideals rather than peaceful protest.
April 4th, 1968. killing of a prominent civil rights leader by James Earl Ray in Memphis Tennessee
Civil Rights act of 1968
a law that banned discrimination in housing
A policy designed to redress past discrimination against women and minority groups through measures to improve their economic and educational opportunities
US History: Post WW2, Boom, and Civil Rights
created by Anakin James Manby
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