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AP Psych Unit 12
Terms in this set (79)
treatment methods aimed at making people feel better and function more effectively.
Deal with mental disorders or cope with problems of living
therapeutic process generally involves:
Identifying the problem
Identifying the cause
Deciding on treatment
Provides help in dealing with the common problems of normal living-relationships, child rearing, school problems. Typically counselors in schools clinics or other institutions
Depends on the state; minimum master's in counseling, but most commonly a PhD
Trained primarily to work with those who have more severe disorders, but may also work with clients having less severe problems. Usually private practice
Usually required to hold a PhD and state certificate
A specialty of medicine; deals with severe mental problems-most often prescribes drugs. May be private practice or employed by clinics and mental hospitals
MD; licensed by medical board
Practitioners of Freudian therapy. Usually in private practice
therapy style that results from combining elements of several different therapy techniques
the relationship between therapist and client that develops as a warm, caring, accepting relationship characterized by empathy, mutual respect, and understanding
therapy for mental disorders in which a person with a problem talks with a psychological professional
main goal is helping people to gain insight with respect to their own behavior, thoughts, and feelings
goal is apply learning principles that change or eliminate inappropriate behavior
insight therapy based on the theory of Freud, emphasizing the revealing of unconscious, repressed internal conflicts
"royal road to the unconscious"
the actual content of one's dream.
the symbolic or hidden meaning of dreams. Recurring patterns
Freudian technique in which a patient was encouraged to talk about anything that came to mind without fear of negative evaluations
occurring when a patient becomes reluctant to talk about a certain topic, either changing the subject or becoming silent
the tendency for a patient or client to project positive or negative feelings for important people from the past onto the therapist
Put feelings on someone else
mad at your mom, you put your angry on to the therapist
therapist projects feelings from their own relationships onto the patient
therapist puts feelings on to patient; mad about something in their life, puts angry on to patient
emphasis on themes across important relationships, including childhood experiences, that seeks to enhance the here and now self-insight
therapist remains relatively neutral and does not interpret or take direct actions
let patient do the talking, allows patient to figure out a solution by themselves (humanistic view)
therapist actively gives interpretations of a client's statements and may suggest certain behavior or actions. Psychoanalysis today is more directive.
therapist gives patient ways to help, and solutions to help reduce the problem
Client (person)-centered therapy
a nondirective insight therapy based on the work of Carl Rogers in which the client does all the talking and the therapist listens.
Unconditional positive regard
therapy technique in which the therapist restates what the client says rather than interpreting those statements
Unconditional positive regard
warmth, respect, and accepting atmosphere created by the therapist for the client in person-centered therapy
the ability of the therapist to understand the feelings of the client.
the genuine, open, and honest response of the therapist to the client.
Gestalt therapy (WHOLE) - Humanistic Therapy
the therapist helps clients to accept all parts of their feelings and subjective experiences in the present moment
Existential Therapy - Humanistic Therapy
help the client find meaning and purpose in life
Emphasis on free will
Criticisms on Humanistic Therapy
Humanistic therapies are not based in experimental research and work best with intelligent, highly verbal persons.
Unrealistic positive view on human behavior
action therapies aimed at changing disordered behavior without concern for the original causes of such behavior.
No interest in post-causes
the therapist wants to know what you can change today.
Address behavior than change that behavior
exposes people to what they fear and avoid
list of ordered fears and taught to relax while concentrating on those fears.
think about or see a needle, patient needs to keep calm
replacing an old conditioned response with a new one by changing the unconditioned stimulus.
person is rapidly and intensely exposed to the fear-provoking situation or object and prevented from making the usual avoidance or escape response.
Virtual reality exposure- simulations
afraid of flying- stimulation of a plane flying
Implosive Therapy- thinking
undesirable behavior is paired with an aversive stimulus to reduce the frequency of the unwanted behavior.
alcoholic - take medication
rubber band on the wrist; when you think about something you crave, you will snap the band to stop the craving.
Behavior modification or applied behavior analysis
modify or change undesirable behavior and increase desirable behavior
the strengthening of a response by following it with a pleasurable consequence or the removal of an unpleasant stimulus.
reinforce behavior in which the tokens can be accumulated and exchanged for desired items or privileges.
formal, written agreement between the therapist and client in which goals for behavioral change, reinforcements, and penalties are clearly stated.
removal of a reinforcer to reduce the frequency of a behavior
extinction process in which a person is removed from the situation that provides reinforcement
learning through the observation and imitation of others
model demonstrates the desired behavior
Effectiveness of Behavioral Therapy
is effective but not for more troubling disorders
recognize distortions in their thinking and replace distorted, unrealistic beliefs with more realistic, helpful thoughts.
Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT)
learning to think more rationally and logically along with how to act. Focus on behaviors and hurtful, irrational thoughts
change irrational thinking
person draws sweeping conclusions based on only one incident or event and applies those conclusions to events that are unrelated to the original
get a test back, you fail; say you are horrible at school or stupid (every class you are bad at)
Magnification and minimization
blows a negative event out of proportion to its importance (magnification) while ignoring relevant positive events (minimization)
do the wrong play, you think you lost the game for the whole team. Ignore every good play you made
person takes responsibility or blame for events that are unconnected to the person.
give all the blame to oneself
teacher told lunchroom to pick up garbage, say I do not leave garbage, make about yourself
Aaron Beck's Cognitive Triad Therapy
Patients thoughts about themselves, events in their lives, and the future based upon maladaptive schemas.
person draws a conclusion that is not based on any evidence.
focuses on only one aspect of a situation while ignoring all other relevant aspects.
Albert Ellis's Rational-Emotive Behavioral Therapy (R.E.B.T.)
Therapist boldly challenges the irrational cognitions of the patient to see the world more accurately and reduce the self blame
Success and Criticisms of CBT
CBT has seemed successful in treating depression, stress disorders, and anxiety.
Criticized for focusing on the symptoms and not the causes of disordered behavior.
Family counseling (family therapy)
family members meet together with a counselor or therapist to resolve problems that affect the entire family.
Self-help groups (support groups)
people who have similar problems and who meet together without a therapist or counselor for the purpose of discussion, problem solving, and social and emotional support.
Example: AA, parents who lost a child to cancer, people suffering from cancer
Community Psychology Model
focus on prevention and early intervention for people at risk or showing possible early signs
get guidance/feedback and exposed to people with the same problems
psychotherapy that is offered on the Internet. Also called online, Internet, or Web therapy or counseling.
Group therapy Advantages
Exposure to other people with similar problems, social interaction with others.
Social and emotional support
early prevention and intervention
Group therapy Disadvantages
share the therapist's time with others in the group.
Lack of a private setting
Inability of people with severe disorders to tolerate being in a group.
Effectiveness of Psychotherapy
Psychotherapy is more effective than no treatment at all.
Eye-movement desensitization reprocessing (EMDR)
controversial form of therapy for posttraumatic stress disorder and similar anxiety problems in which the client is directed to move the eyes rapidly back and forth while thinking of a disturbing memory.
Focus on traumatic event and dart your eyes
Light Exposure Therapy
patients are exposed to bright light to counter the dark days of winter
Used to treat Seasonal Affective Disorder
Show to have the same effects as antidepressant drugs and cognitive behavior therapy
therapy for mental disorders in which a person with a problem is treated with biological or medical methods to relieve symptoms of the body and brain
The disorder has a strong biological component.
the use of drugs to control or relieve the symptoms of psychological disorders.
Countered with normal recovery and recovery due to the placebo effect
drugs used to treat psychotic symptoms such as delusions, hallucinations, and other bizarre behavior. (Schizophrenia)
Treat/block dopamine levels
involuntary movement of facial muscles, tongue, and limbs
drugs used to treat and calm anxiety reactions, typically minor tranquilizers.
Benzodiazepines- Xanax or Valium
Increase level of GABA to produce a sense of calm and mild euphoria
Highly addictive and common to build a tolerance
Anti-manic drugs/Mood Stabilizers
used to treat mood disorder and include lithium and certain anticonvulsant drugs.
Lithium Carbonate- used to treat depression and bipolar disorder
May help in stabilizing neurotransmitter (norepinephrine & glutamate) levels; effective in ¾ of all cases
drugs used to treat depression, OCD, PTSD and anxiety by increasing norepinephrine and serotonin
MAOI's - first type of drugs used to treat depression by increasing norepinephrine and serotonin
blocks the reabsorption of serotonin leaving more in the synaptic gaps
Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) - not your first choice
biomedical therapy to treat severe depression in which electrodes are placed on either one or both sides of a person's head and an electric current is passed through the electrodes that are strong enough to cause a seizure or convulsion. (impact neural firing) used if drug therapy or cognitive therapy does not work
Advantage/Disadvantage of ECT
Can help but symptoms of depression often return and may cause trouble with memory
Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS)
Application of repeated pulses of magnetic energy to the brain (pre-frontal cortex) that penetrates the brain's surface
Alternative to ECT in relieving depression without the seizures or memory loss
Treatment when all else has failed
surgery performed on brain tissue to relieve or control severe psychological disorders
psychosurgery in which the connections of the prefrontal lobes of the brain to the rear portions (thalamus) are severed.
Succeeded in relieving aggression but often left patients emotionally and cognitively impaired
deep brain stimulation (DBS)
used to help control tremors and chronic movement disorders.
tiny electrodes are surgically implanted in the brain and connected via a wire to neurotransmitter
Recommended textbook explanations
C. Nathan DeWall, David G Myers
C. Nathan DeWall, David G Myers
Katherine Minter, Mary Spilis, William Elmhorst
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