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Big Idea Vocab 5,4,2
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Terms in this set (81)
Binary search
an algorithm for finding a target value within a sorted list that compares the target value
to the middle element of the list thereby eliminating one-half of the list. The process is repeated until
the value is found or all possible locations are exhausted.
Complexity (of an algorithm)
a measure of the amount of time and/or space required by an algorithm
for an input of a given size (n).
Boolean condition/expression
evaluates to either true or false.
Correctness (of a algorithm)
determined by reasoning formally or mathematically about it, not by
testing an implementation of it.
Decidable problem
one in which an algorithm can be constructed to answer "yes" or "no" for all
inputs.
Efficiency (of an algorithm)
determined by reasoning formally or mathematically about execution time
and memory usage.
Execution time
the time during which a computer program is running
Heuristic
is any approach to problem solving or self-discovery that employs a practical method, not
guaranteed to be optimal, perfect, logical, or rational, but instead sufficient for reaching an immediate
goal.
Iteration
the repetition of a process
Linear/sequential search
can be used to find a target value in any list.
List
an abstract data type that represents a sequence of indexed elements.
Memory usage
the amount of RAM needed for a program to run.
Output
data generated by a computer.
Parameter
information supplied to and needed by a procedure for it to complete its task.
Procedure
a reusable programming abstraction
Programming language
a vocabulary and set of grammatical rules for instructing a computer or
computing device to perform specific tasks.
Pseudocode
an informal high-level description of the operating principle of a computer program or
other algorithm.
Reasonable time
means that the number of steps the algorithm takes is less than or equal to a
polynomial function.
Selection (in an algorithm)
uses a Boolean condition to determine which of two parts of an algorithm
are to be executed.
Sequence/sequencing -
the application of each step of an algorithm in the order in which the
statements are given.
Solvable problem
a problem that can be solved by a Turing machine.
Textual/text-based programming language
created by typing keywords, operators, and other symbols
to create source code to be interpreted or compiled into machine language.
Turing machine
a mathematical model of a hypothetical computing machine which can use a
predefined set of rules to determine a result from a set of input variables.
Undecidable problem
an undecidable problem is one in which no algorithm exists that always leads to
a correct yes-or-no answer.
Unsolvable problem
synonym for undecidable problem.
Abstraction hierarchy
A multi-level knowledge representation framework
for describing the functional structure of a system.
Binary
relating to, composed of, or involving two things
Binary number
A number expressed in the base-2 numeral system.
Binary sequence
An ordered collection of bits.
Boolean
Any kind of logic, function, expression, or theory based on the
work of George Boole.
Boolean function
A logic gate expressed mathematically
Boolean algebra/logic
A branch of mathematics where the values are either
true or false and the operators are and or and not.
Boolean value
Either true or false
Circuit
A path for data to follow.
Digital data
The discrete, discontinuous representation of information.
Constraints (in the context of simulation)
Those things that make it
difficult to make real-world tests.
High-level abstraction
More generalization.
Hypothesis
A supposition or proposed explanation made on the basis of
limited evidence as a starting point for further investigation.
Low-level abstraction
Less generalization.
Logic gate
An elementary building block of a digital circuit.
Memory
The storage space where both the data and the instructions that
process the data are stored.
Model
A simplified representation of a more complex object or
phenomenon.
Overflow error
A number to large for a computer to store.
Simulation
A simplified representation of a more complex object or
phenomenon
Transistor
A semiconductor device used to switch electronic signals.
Abstract data type
an object whose behavior is defined by a set of values and a set of
operations.
Abstraction
reduces the amount of information and detail to facilitate focus on relevant
concepts.
Algorithm
precise sequences of instructions for processes that can be executed by a computer
and are implemented using programming languages.
ASCII
American Standard Code for Information Interchange; a
character encoding standard for electronic communication.
Append
to add something to the end of an existing structure.
Assignment
to set and/or reset the value stored in a storage location denoted by a variable
name.
Block-based language
a programming language in which instructions are represented by
images that are dragged into position by using a mouse
CPU
Central Processing Unit; the electronic circuitry within a
computer that carries out the instructions of a computer program by performing the basic
arithmetic, logic, controlling, and input/output (I/O) operations specified by the instructions.
Element (of a list)
a single part of a larger group
Index (of a list)
represents a position within an ordered collection
Input (to a procedure)
a parameter.
Modulus
an arithmetic operation that gives the remainder when an integer a is divided by
another integer b
Parameter
information supplied to a procedure so that it can complete its task.
Procedure
reusable programming abstraction; a named sequence of programming statements
that can be invoked by name
Program
a set of instructions to be invoked by a computer
Code segment
a sequence of programming statements
Selection (in a program)
uses a Boolean condition to determine which of two parts of an
algorithm are to be executed
Sequence/sequencing
the application of each step of an algorithm in the order in which the
statements are given.
Specifications
the definition of what a computer program is expected to do.
Cleaning Data
the process of detecting and correcting (or removing) corrupt or inaccurate records set, table, or database.
Clustering Data
the task of grouping a set of objects in such a way that objects in the same group are more similar (in some sense) to each other than to those in other groups
Programming error
one of several different conditions that prevent a computer program from
executing correctly
Data Classification
the process of organizing data by relevant categories so that it may be used and protected more efficiently
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Data Compression
encoding information using fewer bits than the original representation
Data Mining
the process of discovering patterns in large sets involving methods at the intersection of machine learning, statistics, and database systems.
Data Representation
the form in which data is stored, processed, and transmitted
Data visualization tools
used in the creation and study of the visual representation of data
data-driven
determined by or dependent on the collection or analysis of data
Database
an organized collection of data, generally stored and accessed electronically from a computer system
Filtering Data
the process of choosing a smaller part of your data set and using that suset for viewing or analysis
information filtering system
removes redundant or unwanted information from information stream using (semi)automated or computerized methods prior to presentation to a human user
lossless data compression
allows the original data to be perfectly reconstructed from the compressed data
lossy data compression
permits reconstruction only of an approximation of the original data
metadata
a set of data that describes and gives information about other data.
Scalability
the capability of a system, network, or process to handle a growing amount of work, or its potential to be enlarged in order to accommodate that growth
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