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Terms in this set (66)
The world as a whole is conceived of as being either physical or psychical. Directs our attention away from experience and toward the search for causes of experience
Belief that science is the only way to genuine knowledge
That which surrounds us but which is also the background and yet provides the context for what we do and for our experience (i.e. being in an academic setting)
The encompassing world of our immediate experience which can be recovered from the world as given to scientific interpretation by a special type of reduction
Our everyday naive acceptance of the existence of the world and objects and that they are as we experience them (i.e. a minute of time is simply a minute of time regardless of how or when we spend it)
Lived experience prior to reflective thought. NOT the realm of the "unconscious" but is the ongoing stream of experiencing that is always already there
The realm of experience we consciously attend to and think about
Any act of the subject directed toward an intentional object, that is, the noema; the subject pole of experience (i.e. actual activity of dreaming)
The object or content toward which consciousness is directed; the object pole of experience. (i.e. the dream to which the dream is referring)
Conscious is always consciousness of something, whether physical objects or persons or ideas or objects we imagine (consciousness is always doing something/consciousness is always pointing to something)
The search for what which makes experience possible rather than the nature of particular experiences
The goal of this reflective method is to see the experience or phenomenon in a fresh way by setting aside "common sense" or theoretical preconceptions about that which one wants to examine. It includes "bracketing" concern with whether what is given in experiences is "real" or not
The act whereby the belief in the factual existence characteristic of the natural attitude is suspended, bracketed or turned off. Helps us focus on consciousness by marking out the perimeter of everything that's part of the natural attitude.
This is the act that leads from noting particular features of a phenomenon to the uncovering of its universal/general essence or structure. (what makes a dream a dream?) The goal is intuition realizing the essential nature of consciousness.
Free imaginative variation
This is part of "reduction" in your mind you vary the phenomenon in question to arrive at what features and what features are not (i.e. a pencil has to be shaped in a way that you can write with it, but it could be yellow or red, long or short, made out of wood or mechanical)
In anxiety, all beings (and involvements) lose their significances for us. Being anxious is an awakening that occurs as one's world as one knows it is no longer meaningful and the means by which we define ourselves come into question; this kind of crisis provides the opportunity for becoming authentic.
We are authentic insofar as we take ownership of our existence as ours, and that includes owning our finitude, individuality, and agency.
Being and beings
The question of being: "is the that of what it means for anything to be" A key dimension of time or temporality
Refers to how we find ourselves in terms of mood and orientation. We are always situated in some way in a context
our existence in inherently relational through and through. You cannot take the person out of the world because a "wordless" person is a complete fiction
Things matter to us in some way, we use them, broadly speaking; even indifference is understandable only as a variation of care.
Da- Suggests that fundamental to the human condition as possibility is our inherent relatedness (presence) to what is other than us. In other words transcendence is intrinsic to existence. Sein- refers to our existence as moving forward. We are not static entities. (being-in-the-world)
Refers to the impersonal authority of "what believe or do" to common sense as an escape from our awareness of ourselves as individuals who are responsible for our own lives. Insofar as one is caught up in what one ought to be and do, one becomes inauthentic
Falling or Fallenness
Not living authentically but losing oneself in immersion to Das Man, to common sense, and the activities of one's life so that one forgets oneself and Being
Interpretive phenomenology or phenomenological hermeneutics
From Heidegger's perspective, being is partly hidden and in darkness and therefore more than phenomenological description is called for. It is the "interpretive process of existence to allow Being to uncover itself in and through man himself"
The branch of metaphysics dealing with being or reality. Heidegger is concerned with "the to-be of whatever is" rather than with the nature of specific objects or individual persons
Humans live toward the future, and this is the realm of freedom, the emerging of the new. Projection is related to understanding of things and situations and what they can be used for (in a general sense)
This refers to the person's choice as to his or her way of being and is expressed in action which includes specific projects which are related to the basic project. It always refers to the future
In our ordinary relationship to the things around us we relate to and experience them in what Heidegger calls a ready-to-hand way or mode. We relate to the hammer, for example, as that tool which enables us to construct something. It is not a meaning that we add to the situation; rather it is the meaning that is already there
Refers to our more abstract stance to things, when we step back and look at them in a more detached way and conceptualize them as existing independently of us
The authentic mode of being-toward-death where one is open to the abyss present within oneself. As human beings we find freedom when we acknowledge both our capacity for making decisions and our finitude.
We are always already living in the world with others, and solicitude refers to the various ways in which we relate to and feel about those others
We are born into a world not of our making and we live under conditions over which we have limited control. Yet we are not just passive. We are what we make of what we are made of.
Being is what it is, and includes both being-in-itself and being for itself. The terms in the title of Sartre's book, Being and Nothingness, are generally taken to refer to this dual dimension of Being.
This refers to conscious being, including objects in the world, or simply, that which is other than consciousness. But non-conscious beings transcend consciousness in that they exceed our experience of them.
Being-for-itself consciousness which is intentional and which has a negation at its core. I am not what I experience, I am not what I was and I am not what I will be even as I strive to be what I am not yet.
My self is seen and objectified by the other (for example, in the gaze). In turn I try to recover my being (sense of agency) by objectifying the other. Thus conflict is build into Sartre's view of relationships, even in love relationships where I try to possess (objectify) the other even as my desire for the other is based on his or her transcending (or eluding) my objectification.
In fleeing from our freedom and from our "no-thingness" we may pretend that we are like objects ("this is my personality") and that our actions are merely function of objective circumstances ("he made me really angry").
includes such actions as pretending I am not doing what I am doing, overlooking one's own motives, and denying implications of entering into certain situations (any one action in relation to a situation may include all of the over three dimensions)
"the transcending for itself" In more colloquial language, consciousness is dynamic, always on the move, so to speak, even if it involves repetition, but repetition does not mean that it is an object. There are two levels or types of consciousness: unreflective/pre reflective and reflective
Type of consciousness: unreflective or pre reflective
Which is our unselfconscious engagement in the world
Type of consciousness: reflective
Where we are explicitly aware of that which we are unconscious. It is this type of consciousness where the "ego" arises as an object of reflection
Existence precedes essence
There is no blueprint for people's lives-- we are stuck with our existence, that is we are condemned to freedom, to creating ourselves through our choices in response to our concrete circumstances (facticity)
For Sartre this includes the fact of death but just as much the fact that in choosing one thing, I give up another. Our choices include mundane (coffee or tea) as well as the profound (go to law school or join the army); of course, our choices are never ending and we can make choices that involve a change of course (drop out of law school and join the army but now as a law school dropout)
This refers to the person's choice as to his or her way of being and is expressed in action which includes specific projects which are related to the basic project. It always refers to the future--the word project is a verb as well as a noun. That is, in order to further my project I am always projecting myself into the future.
We are always making choices but we also always choose from what is within our awareness and situation. We cannot become anything that we want to be (see facticity)
Husserl claims that there is always a presence of an ego, of a self, in any experience. Sartre disagrees, suggesting that this of experience of "me" or mine is constituted through reflection and is not invariable a feature of any experience whatever.
The ego which remains as an irreducible residue after having been subject to the phenomenological reduction.
The totality of interrelated entities all of which are endowed with significance by human beings. In other words, as humans we-constitude the world in particular human ways that reflect our ongoing movement forward toward certain goals.
The characteristic of existence. MP's notion of the body-subject which addresses how our existence is simultaneously embodied and psychological. As a philosopher he is continually engaged in exploration of a domain (human experience and existence) which is characterized by paradox and ambiguity.
MP rejects all forms of cartesian dualism (self/world, mind/body). The notion of the body-subject "transcends" the separation of body and spirit, and points to how at the bodily level of existence there is meaning giving.
For example, without thinking about it, we experience the large threatening dog as coming dangerously close to us. In other words, co-constitution takes place at the level of the embodied pre reflective level of relating and experiencing. In our everyday experience, our body is not an object among others, but as MP states, our orientation of the world.
Empiricism and Intellectualism
These "prejudices" (which have a long history) are the perspectives that MP engages and critiques as he seeks to "return to the things themselves" that is our experience as we live it. In other words, for him, phenomenology is a third way that avoids the one-sidedness of the traditional prejudices.
Empiricism (roughly equivalent to "objectivism")
the doctrine that all knowledge comes from sense experience (or sensations) and we passively register what is "out there".
Intellectualism (roughly equivalent to "idealism")
the doctrine that knowledge comes from reasoning, judgement or more generally, the mind. MP argues that intellectualism also presupposes that sensations are an ingredient of perceptual experience.
Form or pattern. Psychologists (and MP) argue that forms or patterns are fundamental parts of our perception, not individual stimuli or sensory "atoms" that are somehow put together by the "mind" into larger patterns.
Far from being, as has been thought, a procedure of idealistic philosophy, the phenomenological reduction belongs to existential philosophy: Heidegger's being-in-the-world appears only against the background of the phenomenological reduction.
Phantom limb example
Patient continues to experience her missing limb as if it were still present as it was before it was cut away. Drawing on empirical research he tells us that the patient experiences the absent limb, for example, a hand, as a correlate of those aspects of the world which "speak to" the hand, namely, the piano to be played, the doorknob to be opened, and so forth. When the patient restructures his/her world in such a manner that the things no longer beckon to the lost limb, then the experience of it vanishes.
But if the doorknob "given as to be turned" is a correlate of my hand's capacity to turn it, then how is it possible that it continues to be perceived as 'to be turned', even when his/her hand is no longer there?
MP tells us that we must make a distinction between the body as it is at a given moment, and the body that he calls an "habitual body" On the basis of past experience, I have learned that doorknobs are to be turned. This 'knowledge' has sedimentated into my habitual body. While learning to play the piano, or to dance, I am intensely focused on what I am doing, and subsequently, this ability to play or to dance sedimentates into an habitual disposition
The suspension of the question of whether or not something exists, is real-in other words, the suspension of judgement about the truth
Descartes's view that all of reality could ultimately be reduced to subject-object (mind/body) split
the person and his or her world co constitute each other
The study of interpretation, how we interpret things
Existential clock, duration, interval, how we move through
Existential-expansive vs. how do we move through
Refers to non-conscious being, including objects in the world. Non-conscious beings transcend consciousness in that they exceed our experience of them.
Becoming overwhelmed by the brute reality of the world, its absurdity and the way it threatens one's subjectivity.
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