204 terms

BA350 Exam 2

STUDY
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Terms in this set (...)

Terminal/Instrumental Values
-Terminal values: Values that represent the goals to be achieved (happiness, world peace)
-Instrumental values: values that reflect the means to achieving goals (courage)
Emotions at work
-Mental state that typically includes feelings, physiological changes, and the inclination to act
-short lived, intense reactions
-positive emotions: happiness, pride contentment
-Negative emotions: fear, anger, anxiety
Emotional contagion
a process through which the emotions of one person are transferred to another, consciously or unconsciously, through nonverbal channels
ex: through nonverbal cues, facial expressions, body language, vocal tones, emotions
-Affects jobs that have interpersonal interaction
Emotional Labor
effort, planning, and control needed to express organizationally desired emotions during interpersonal transactions
-display rules: "smile we are on stage"
-Emotional dissonance: conflict between required and true emotions
Emotional Dissonance
the conflict between required and true emotions
ex: Chick Fil A, Disneyland, Ritz Carlton all require positive expressions
In recent studies, these have become more important for job choice
-Achievement
-Concern for others
-Fairness
-Honesty
Big 5
Fear
shame
happiness
sadness and
Anger
Consequences of Emotions at Work
-Positive -> OCBs, improved cognitive functioning, physical and psychological health, creativity, etc
-Negative -> job dissatisfaction, lack of commitment, unhealthy coping behaviors, poor health, workplace deviance
High vs Neutral expression examples
High expression = disneyland
Neutral expression = judge, guards at Buckingham Palace, police
Dealing with Emotional Labor:
-Cross culture differences
-Training
Cross culture differences: 83% Japanese, 40% Americans, 29% Italians believe it is inappropriate to get emotional in business
Training: "smile school" -----> happens in Japan, teaches better customer service
Hire employees with the right attitude
Ethical Behavior
acting in ways consistent with one's personal values and commonly held values of the organization and society
12 Common ethical issues
1. Stealing
-embezzling, taking office supplies, stealing food, stealing money etc

2. Lying
-directly saying things that aren't true
-could lie about a product defect
-people lie on their resumes

3. Fraud and Deceit
-cheating or perpetuating
-pretending to do all the work yourself
-taking credit for work you didn't do
-pretending you're someone you're not

4. Conflict of Interest and Influence Buying
-doing something for someone else that conflicts against your own company's rules
-taking bribes or payoffs in exchange for something

5. Hiding or Divulging Info
-hiding: hiding info that other people have the right to know
-divulging: giving out information that you're not allowed to
-ex: insider trading

6. Cheating
-taking unfair advantage of a situation
-ex: olympics-Taking steroids
-at work- lying on expense report, lying on timesheet

7. Personal Decadence
-aiming below excellence in work
-doing sloppy or poor work
-doing purposefully sloppy work in order to get positive or negative advantage

8. Interpersonal Abuse
-emotionally abuse others
-discrimination
-organizational abuse
-sexual harassment
-organization has practices that abuses members
-people getting paid differently
-asking someone to do something that doesn't align with values
-staying late
-doing things that aren't part of the job description

9. Organizational Abuse
-Organizations having practices that abuse their members, ex: misusing powers, asking you to stay late and not paying you for it, asking you to do something that isn't part of your job description

10. Rule Violations
-you breaking the rules
-bringing people into your work or giving out things for free

11. Accessory to unethical acts
-if you see someone doing something unethical and don't say anything

12. Ethical Dilemmas
-choosing between two undesirable or desireable choices
-ex used in class: 3 friends all get drugs, 2 of the friends go home and the last friend gets caught with all the drugs. Government gives them options: either the 2 friends have to come back and everyone serves 7 years or the one friend that gets caught gets executed.
4 Individual Differences that affect Ethical behavior
-Value systems (FIND DEFINITION)

-Locus of control (FIND DEFINITION)

-Machiavellianism: Guide for using an acquiring power for manipulating other people. Willing to do whatever it takes to get their way

-Cognitive moral development: 3 levels (2 stages per level)
Premoral: level 1 (i behave according to awards and punishments, regarding self interest, avoiding pain and seeking pleasure)
Conventional: level 2, I behave according to expectations ( mine, families, etc)
Principled: level 3, right is right and wrong is wrong. Uphold these values no matter where I go

Higher level = whistleblowers (report companies for doing wrong thing)
Organizational Influences
-Organizational climate and culture
-Code of conduct: list of things that are ok and not okay
-Ethics committee
-Norms: If you have a norm to behave certain ways, is what people follow
-Training
-Modeling (role model)
-Rewards and punishment
Communication Model
LOOK AT PIC
Communication Media: which to use when
Medium Information richness Dissemination

Face to face high low
telephone high low
Electronic mail moderate moderate
Individualized letter moderate moderate
personalized note/memo moderate moderate
formal written report low high
flyer or bulletin low high
formal numeric report low high
Communication Networks in Organizations
-Pair-wise:
Dyad
Chain network
-Small Group (centralized):
Chain
Wheel
-Small Group Communication (decentralized)
Circle network
All channels
Impact of and tips for use of communication technology
Technologies: info database, email, listserve, voice mail, fax, etc.

Usage Tips:
-completeness in the message
-build in face time
-don't assume immediate response
-regularly disconnect self from technology (ex. need to have downtime)
-maintain courtesy
Barriers to communication
-Physical Separation - careful with facetime (you aren't seeing their physical expressions)
-Status Differences - it will prohibit someone from talking, create a trust/comment box to let people from different statuses talk (could inhibit people from talking in meetings)
-Language - be very clear (Use of technical terms/acronyms)
-Culture Diversity - what country you are from
-Gender Differences - different people communicate differently based on gender (communication differences)
Communication Skills (e.g. facilitating, initiating, blaming, etc)
FACILITATING:
-Open-ended questions (get the conversation going - requires more than a yes or no answer)
-Paraphrasing (you're saying what someone else said in your own words)
-Reflecting (reflect on their emotions ex. counselor/therapist)

INITIATING:
-Express thoughts and feeling
-Making observations
-Being Direct: saying what u want to see happen, etc

COMMUNICATING STYLES TO AVOID:
-Blaming (gets ppl defensive)
-Close-ended questions, yes or no answer. Use only when trying to end conversation
Conversation stoppers
-Judging (ex. criticizing someone)
-Diagnosing (ex. playing amateur psychologist)
-Moralizing (ex. preaching, making a person feel small)
-Advising (premature, give it if it asked)
-Responding too quickly (reassuring, explaining, interrupting) -> interrupting is mostly used by executives = AWARENESS is key
-Diverting (own story, intellectualizing, joking) - takes away from other's stories
-Playing lawyer - ppl who are constantly interrogating you
-Being bored or absent minded - PAY FULL ATTENTION to the person speaking
Test Q: you are telling me something important and I interrupt you by telling a joke. This is an example of
Diverting
Nonverbal communication
-Proxemics - study of use space
intimate - 1 1/2 ft. and below
personal - 1 1/2 to 4 ft.
social - 4-12 ft.
public distance - 12 ft or more

Seating Dynamics:

Δ ⬣
Cooperation

Δ
(oval) Open Communication

Δ
Competition
(oval)

⬣Δ⬣
Non-communication

includes eye movement, gestures, facial expressions, tone of voice, and the like
Examples of Space
-China: very close, intimate space
-Arab people: speaking distance is close
-Colder climates: farther distance
-Warmer climates: closer distance

Ex. Touching - about 100 times in warmer climates
-US - about 4 times in touching
-England - 0 touching

Example:
Performance appraisal -> open communication
Kinesics
body movement and gestures
Facial and eye behavior
watch what they are doing = looking to the left means you're lying
Paralanguage
variations in tone and in speech - nonverbal communication

We give more credit to people who speak more moderately quickly (we think they know what they're talking about)
Women and Men's English
Women:
-We need it = I want
-I'm not upset = Of course im upset

Men:
-Im hungry = im hungry
-I'm sleepy = i'm sleepy
Types of Cultural Communication (hint: there's 5)
-English: straight forward
-semitic (arabic, old testimate): lot of ands and ors, parallel arguments
-Oriental: a lot of beating around the bush
-Romance (Italian, French, etc): tend to go on tangents
-Slavic (Russian): clear beginning and clear end but middle might get side tracked
Good Listening Behaviors
Remove physical barriers
Maintain eye contact
Lean forward
Allow pauses
Nod to indicate understanding
Avoid distractions
Principles of Conflict
-conflict is normal and inevitable
-you cannot NOT deal with conflict
-there's no right way to resolve conflict
-a good attitude can influence the outcome
-conflict is not just about personality
-conflict does not equal anger
Positive Consequences in Conflict
-new ideas/stimulates creativity
-motivates change
-diffuses more serious conflict
-reduces energy expenditure
-personal growth for self/others
-strengthens personal relationships
Organizational factors that affect conflict
-specialization
-interdependence
-common resources:
(if you have to share resources with other people when the budget is cut)
-goal differences
(different departments may have different goals)
(sales vs customer service)
-status inconsistencies
(secretary vs manager)
-jurisdictional ambiguities
(different departments don't know what they're responsible for)
Individual Factors that affect Conflict
Skills and abilities
Personalities
Perceptions
Values and ethics
Emotions
Communication barriers
Cultural differences
Types of Conflict Frames
-Relationship Vs Task: a relationships emphasis focus on the parties' interpersonal relationship. A task emphasis focuses on the material aspects of an episode, such as a budget
-Emotional vs. Intellectual: focus on feelings vs focus on observed behavior
-Cooperate vs. win: emphasizes role of all parties vs wants to maximize personal gain


In U.S: Collaborating, Competing and compromising
In Singapore: Avoiding and Accommodating
Types of Conflict
-Interorganizational: Uber vs Lyft - some is good because it causes competition but bad because it can be disruptive?
-Intergroup: usually bad if there's a lot because people can be hostile
-Intragroup: within a group, there's conflict
-Interpersonal: between 2 people
-Intrapersonal: within a person
-Interrole: conflict between your roles (ex being a mother and a professor when your son is sick- do you teach class or stay with your son
-Intrarole: Conflict within a role (working as a hostess and you have 2 managers telling you two different things)
-Person-role: having conflict with values of the role (being requested to sell a faulty product)
Ineffective Conflict Management Strategies
-Nonaction: doing nothing
-Secrecy: hiding things, like issues
-Administrative orbiting
-Due process nonaction: ex- for sexual harassment it's a time consuming process so a lot of people don't do it
-Character assassination: When there's a conflict u just make a statement about someone's character Ex - oh they're just dumb
Effective Conflict Management Strategies
Superordinate goals
Expanding resources
Changing personnel
Changing structure
Confronting and negotiating
Coping with Difficult People
1) Hostile aggressives
2) Clams
3) Snipers
4) Superagreeables
5) Complainers
6) Negativists
7) Know-it-alls
8) Indecisive Stallers
9) Chronic talkers/interrupters
10) Cryers
-Hostile aggressives: very openly emotional, rude
-You want to remain calm and in control
-Clams: someone who doesn't talk; unresponsive
-Keep asking open ended questions and eventually make a decision if they continue to be unresponsive
-Snipers: people in the background during a presentation making public comments
-Put the person on the spots; snippers are hiding so they don't like to be called out
-Superagreeables: someone who promises things they can't keep, always nice to you
-Talk to them ahead of time and make sure they know you value them as a person, make sure they are making realistic commitments
-Complainers: external locus of control,
-Make sure to focus on solutions, listen and acknowledge what the complainer is saying
-Negativists: negative about everything
-Give them a different perspective, "what's the worst thing that could happen"; you want to direct them towards solutions
-Know-it-alls: think they know everything, tend to be oh so smart, usually results from being insecure
-Ask them questions, sometimes they'll catch their own inconsistencies
-Indecisive Stallers: have problems making decisions, think they're gonna make a mistake
-Set up deadlines to make decisions, help them make little decisions, help them know that if they don't make decisions by a certain deadline you'll have to make the decision for them
-Chronic talkers/interrupters: constantly talking/interrupting
-Might have to interrupt them
-Cryers: cry during discussion
-Support them but still tell them the feedback you were going to give them
Steps to dealing with conflict
1) openly state the problem
2) ask for a viewpoint
3) listen/ do not argue
4) provide feedback on what you heard/paraphrase
5) tell your side and ask for feedback
6) agree on problem
7) commit to work together
Best Practices (dealing with conflict)
-Separate person from behavior
-Avoid trigger words (ex - you always do this, you are stupid, you made me do this, etc)
-Use "I" statements
-Watch nonverbals: express physically what you want to express
Conflict Management Styles
Assertive (Competing) (Collaborating)


(Compromising)


Unassertive (Avoiding) (Accomodating)
Uncooperative Cooperative
Groups vs. teams
-Groups: informal and can be big
-Teams: more formal, small # of people, going for a goal and are held accountable
Types of work teams
1) Quality circles = japanese companies, small group of people to look at quality situations (quality control), (ex-planning); has to be related to goals of company)

2) Self-Managed Teams = can basically run their own show, no manager (ex. GE, Saturn, Southwest)

3) Cross-Functional Teams = have different functions: marketing, finance, IT -> they do strategic planning

4) Task Forces = bring enough expertise for the different areas
Group issues to consider
-Group composition: skills needed, info needed
-Group purpose: what are you there to do?
-Task and Process goals
-Process Goal: how the team functions together to achieve a task goal
-Group size: rule of thumb is 5-7; that is enough man power and less chances of conflict
Test Q: What is an optimal size for a team?
4-12
Norms of Behavior
how you should behave, everyone knows the norms
Group cohesion
interpersonal glue; keeps things together, feels more connected with the team
Social loafing and Sucker effect
aka FREE RIDER, slacker (drags people down)
-How to deal with a social loafer: talk with them, do peer evaluations, dedicate your time to them
-Sucker effect: b/c there is one free rider in the group it starts to drag everybody down
Loss of individuality
deindividuation, lose your sense of individuality (usually a negative thing) -- do things you usually don't do by yourself
Stages of group development (forming, storming, norming, performing, task-oriented, adjourning)
-forming: just starting as a group; getting to know each other
-more interpersonal relationship
-storming: more conflict happens, fighting over leadership roles, people starting to withdraw
-more authority
-norming: lots of task-oriented behavior, sharing information, accepting different opinions, cohesion being developed
-both task and interpersonal
-performing:
-task-oriented:
-adjourning: finalize group (if you get a new person in your group, you would need to go back to forming because you do not know the person)(accepted roles and get task done)
Test Q: What stage are you in if members are competing over leadership and authority issues?
Storming
Characteristics of an effective groups
-Atmosphere: comfortable, informal
-Task/Goals: understood and accepted
-Listening well to each other and all participate in task-relevant discussions
-People express both feelings and ideas
-Disagreement exists around ideas/methods, not personality
-Group is aware of how it is operating and functioning
-Decisions usually based on consensus, not majority
-Clear assignments are made and accepted by group members
Communication skills in teams
-Debate Discussion Dialogue
-Goal Defeat Persuade understand
-Presentation Telling Selling asking
-Focus (Attack person + ideas)(Chng. others position)(Draw out others' values and positions)


In the US, it is mostly about discussion and debate; less of dialogue
3 Types of Group roles
-Task Oriented Group Roles

-Relation-Oriented Group Roles

-Self-Oriented Group Roles:
Types of Relation-Oriented Group Roles: (Encouragers, Harmonizers, Gatekeepers, Standard Setters, followers)
-Encouragers: cheerleaders, friendly and warm people, solidarity
-Harmonizers: ppl who mediate conflict, relieve the tension between group members
-Gatekeepers: positive; withhold information and makes sure everybody in the team participates
-Standard Setters: ensures quality of team achievements are at a certain level
-Followers
Self-Oriented Group Roles (Blockers, Recognition Seekers, Dominators, Avoiders, Jokers)
-Blockers - ppl who are stubborn, negative, resistant, brings back topic that has already been discussed
-Recognition Seekers - ppl who talk a lot about themselves, be in a superior position
-Dominators - assert authority, manipulates group
-Avoiders - try to push ppl away and remain away from interaction
-Jokers - take energy away from the ppl who are trying to work
Types of Task Oriented Group Roles
-Initiators: offer new ideas
-Information Seekers: ask questions; clarifications
-Information Givers: go out and find the facts, provide relevant experience
-Coordinators: clarify anything and help coordinate
-Evaluators: assess the teams functioning, practicality (aka devil's advocate)
Test Q: What role are you assuming if you are the one who mediates conflict and relieves the tension in a group?
Harmonizer
Self vs. other imposed roles
-Self-Imposed: Take on roles based on interest, socialization, etc.
-Other-Imposed roles: take on roles assigned to you based on stereotypes, group membership, etc.
Virtual teams - AKA Geographically dispersed teams
-Be proactive
-Focus on relationships before tasks (ex. sharing personal stories)
-Seek clarity and focus early on (ex. establish relationship and be clear on what you want/to achieve
-Create order and predictability (ex. have a template for doing this)
-Be a cool-headed, objective problem solver
-Develop shared operating agreements (ex. do a team contract stating how you're going to work together)
-Give team members personal attention (make time to know everyone, especially if you're the leader)
-Respect the challenges of a virtual environment
-Recognize limits of available technology (ex. airport meetings)
-Stay people focused (ex. have pictures, bios, chats)

Realize that these a real human beings
International aspects in groups - BASED ON CULTURE
-High conformity - japan, france, and sweden
-Low conformity - germany, england
-Moderate conformity - brazil, lebanon, hong kong, US
-Collectivist cultures have higher levels of conformity. higher team effectiveness, and suppress conflict
Types of Decision strategies
-3 Factors: routine-nonroutine, recurring non-recurring, certainty-uncertainty

1) programmed decision
-routine, recurring, predictable
-predictable: ex people return gifts given to them after the holidays
2) unprogrammed decision
-nonroutine, nonrecurring, and unpredictable
-you don't really know all the risk factors
-you want to think and plan for this kind of decision
-ex: the president is coming to your hotel-you must plan for this event
Models of decision making
Rational:
-decision making is completely rational
-decision maker has consistent set of alternatives, knows all the information about the alternatives etc
-not really realistic

Bounded rationality:
-more realistic
-managers usually choose the best alternative
-managers recognize their world view is simple
-managers are comfortable making decisions without considering all possible alternatives

Garbage Can:
-random decision
-not systematic
-usually under time pressure
-not exploring all alternatives
-quality of decision is poor
Types of factors in decision making
-risk aversion
-escalation of commitment
-intuition
-Personality
-creativity
Define Risk and adverse risk
Risk: risk takers are those who tolerate ambiguity, men are more risk takers, younger are more risk takers

-adverse risk: afraid of risk- want things that are familiar, usually focus on the negatives of taking more risk
-managers that take good risks actually do perform better, HOWEVER, it's important to learn from that risk

-some countries are afraid of risk (uncertainty avoidance): japan, arab countries
escalation of commitment
-defn: tendency to continue committing resources to a losing course of action
-ex: relationships, gambling, vietnam war
-we do this because we hope that it will get better
-solutions to avoid escalation of commitment
-group decision making- you have multiple people to bounce ideas off of
-disperse decision making into different steps- no one person is completely responsible
-allow for graceful exits
-reward people for admitting failure (tell them its ok to admit to a mistake, not like ACTUALLY reward them)
intuition
-your gut reaction
-it occurs quickly
-tends to be ethical
-positive force in decision making
what is the relationship between personality and making decisions
-different people have different personalities when making decisions
-thinking and feeling
what do employers tend to seek in employees
creativity
left side vs right side of brain
Left: Right:
Verbal - Creative
Sequential - Visual
Logical - Spatial
Analytical - Gestalt
Rational - Intuitive
Plans - nonverbal
characteristics of creative people
-wide knowledge base
-they are very informed about a wide range of things
-can be born creative but can also learn to be more creative
-intellectual abilities
-intellectually curious people
-personality
-non conformists
-self confident
-take risks
-dry sense of humor
-risk seekers
-persistent
-abstract kind of people
-social habits and upbring
-whether your family supported your creativity or not while growing up
-family difficulty can affect creativity
-making your own prom dress or board games
-mood and creativity
-usually more creative when you're happy
Self-Help Techniques to Develop Creativity
-Practice creativity-enhancing exercises
-Staying alert to opportunities
-Use multiple senses when seeking solutions
-Speak to different kinds of people
-Use idea notebook
-Misc: draw pictures, write stories, write with left hand, etc
Enhancing Creativity at Work
Establishing idea quotas
-"Give me 10 uses for a safety pin instead of holding clothes"
Pet peeve techniques
-Trying to be proactive, figuring out what people would complain about
Forced association
-Picking something from the dictionary and matching it to the problem?
Excursion Method
-Finding a problem, putting it on the board, and everyone else says whatever comes to mind to find a solution
Equipping a kitchen for the mind
-Ex: advertising company- have ping pong tables and very decorative, thinks outside the box
A Climate for Creativity
-Permit creativity/supportive environment
-Participative decision making/Reward creativity
-Provide tools
-Role model
-Minimize structure
Advantages/disadvantages of group decision making
Advantages:
-more info and knowledge
-increased acceptance and commitment
-greater understanding

Disadvantages:
-pressure to conform
-domination of one group member
-amount of time
Types of Making the decision
-Authoritative: decision is made by the leaders, a problem because you don't know how everyone else will feel
-Majority vote:
-Consensus: we all try to live with the decision, most preferable
-discuss the issue with people and come to consensus about a decision

Which one is best depends on the situation
Effects everyone deeply? - consensus
If someone will always object? - majority vote
Types of Liabilities of Group Decision Making
groupthink, group polarization, abilene paradox
Groupthink
-dysfunctional process
-don't go through reality testing
-teams get so cohesive that they don't look at alternatives
-group morality
-tend to rationalize the decisions
-strong pressure to conform
group polarization
-through discussions with your group you become more polarized
-We try to make our opinions more extreme, either going more with the group opinion or less with the group opinion
abilene paradox and what are some of the causes
-consensus seeking behavior that leads team to undesirable outcomes that none of the team members wanted to do
-basically a failure to communicate
-causes: someone has more expertise, lack of self confidence, pressure to conform, perceived uninformed decisions
-solutions: careful questioning, play devil's advocate, in groups, commit to always voicing opinion
Techniques for group decision making
Brainstorming
-coming up with as many ideas as possible without evaluating
-don't react to any ideas
-encourage building on other ideas
-don't let seniority stop you
-go for quantity not quality
-you want wild ideas
Nominal group technique
-structured approach to decision making
-everyone comes up with idea whether orally or written
-everyone has input
Delphi technique
-based on experts thinking
-go to the experts first or go to experts after coming up with ideas
-devil's advocacy
-critique
Dialectical inquiry
-Set up two opposing sides and set up a debate to find pluses and minuses of each side
Decision-Making Survival Exercise: important points discussed
-Clarity of purpose
-Clear strategy
-Listen to/incorporate everyone's input
-Be willing to voice your opinion
-Everyone has a different skill set to capitalize on
-Work as a group
-Caution of abilene paradox
-Caution of group polarization
-Correct answer => individual > group
-Probability/estimate => group > individual
-Small group => faster decisions, sometimes lower quality
Main Points from Chris van Gorder and Dr. Sharieff
Leadership Lesson 1:
-Be humble and be honest
-Never lose your integrity
-think about how you're coming across a room
-people hear conversations across a room
-situational awareness: be aware of everything around you, especially when you're speaking
-leaders of organizations only get 1 chance to prove themselves
-leaders must build a "credibility bank"

Lesson 2: Tell your stories
-openly share your experiences

Lesson 3: Fill the information gap
-When people have the same information they reach similar conclusions
-Do not undermine your bosses

Lesson 4: connect with your people
-Share a piece of yourself. You can't be effective as a distant boss
-Patient being taken care off: creating conflict and she overreacted
"what are you looking at b*!" and she said "not much"
-Go to the front-line
-Stay in touch
-Give praise

Lesson 5: It's an all or nothing deal
-responsibility and authority must come with accountability
-Identify who you have on your team
-Types of people in your group
-Noise level vs productivity
-High high skeptics
-Low low slugs
-High low cynics
-Low high stars

Dealing with people:
-You cannot treat everyone the same way during critical convos
-The 3 step sandwich does not always work
-No slow "no's"
Values (book definition)
broad preferences concerning appropriate courses of action or outcome
Value Sources that can influence individual values
-parents
-friends
-teachers
-siblings
-education
-experience
-external reference groups
Four values especially important in the workplace
-Achievement
-Helping and concern for others
-Honesty
-Fairness
Value congruence
occurs when individuals express positive feelings upon encountering others who exhibit values similar to their own
- satisfaction with the leader by followers was greater when there was congruence in terms of achievement, helping, honesty, and fairness values.
Culture
the learned, shared way of doing things in a particular society
The five dimensions of national culture in Hofstede's framework
-Power Distance
-Uncertainty Avoidance
-Individualism-collectivism
-Masculinity-femininity
-Long-term/short-term orientation
6 major types of emotions
anger, fear, joy, love, sadness, surprise
Self-conscious emotions
Arise from internal sources (shame, guilt, embarrassment, pride)
social emotions
stimulated by external sources
-pity envy and jealousy (derive from external cues and information)
-ex: feeling envious or jealous upon learning that a co-worker received a promotion that you were hoping to get
Moods
more generalized positive and negative feelings or states of mind that may persist for some time
Emotion and mood contagion
the spillover effects of one's emotions and mood onto others
True or False: Daniel Goleman and his colleagues studying emotional intelligence believe leaders should manage emotion and mood contagion with care
True
Emotional labor
the need to show certain emotions in order to perform a job well
-flight attendants
-not always easy (can be hard to be consistently "on")
Emotional dissonance
emotions we actually feel are inconsistent with the emotions we try to project
-we are expected to act with one emotion while we actually feel quite another
True or False: In mainland China, research suggests that people report more positive and negative emotions as well as more intense emotions than in other cultures
False: In China people report fewer positive and negative emotions as well as less intense emotions than in other cultures
True or FalseIn collectivist cultures that emphasize group relationships such as Japan, individual emotional displays are LESS likely to occur and LESS likely to be accepted than in individualistic cultures
True
Display rules
govern the degree to which it is appropriate to display emotions
True or False: British culture tends to discourage downplaying emotions while Mexico culture is much less demonstrative in public
False: British culture tends to encourage downplaying emotions, while Mexican culture is much more demonstrative in public.
True or False: Israeli shoppers seem to equate smiling cashiers with inexperience
True
True or False: Racism and sexism are typically viewed as manifestations of undesirable prejudice and stereotypes.
True
True or False: Although Mexican law prohibits hiring children under the age of 14, an estimated five to ten million children are in the work force
True
Organizational communication
includes the purpose, flow, and direction of messages and the media used for those messages
True or False: Communication processes in organizations never change
False: Communication processes in organizations are continuous and constantly changing
network
a series of interconnected positions in an organization
-organizational communication happens over this pathway
-can be formal or informal
-communication over the network goes in any direction
Communication networks in organizations are ______, ______, _____ systems of human interaction
interdependent, interlocking and overlapping
Sender
decides what message to send and encodes it using symbols that he assumes the receiver will understand
Channel
Can be a person's voice, an electronic device, a written medium or a video medium
Receiver
decodes the received message and interprets its meaning
-responds to the message by acting consistently with that interpretation
Communication media
provide senders many choices
-senders can choose to use telephones, email, letters or memoranda, videoconferencing and face-to-face meetings
Feedback loop
implies interdependence between the sender and receiver during the communication process
Noise
surrounds the entire communication process in organizations and can make communication less effective
True or False: Korean culture, for example, values a stern, strict demeanor. This cultural value makes it difficult for Koreans to smile when providing service.
True
Verbal communication
includes oral, written, and electronic forms of communication
What are the two major forms of verbal communication
Oral and written messages
Oral communicatioin
includes all forms of speech between a sender and receiver
-can occur during face-to-face interaction or by telephone, radio, or television
True or False: American Sign Language is classified as mainly verbal
True
Written Communication
any form of handwriting, printed memo, report or message sent over an electronic medium such as a computer network
Types of nonverbal communication
gestures, posture, seating position, voice tone and infection, speed of speech and the physical environment of the communication interaction
four aspects of nonverbal communication
-physical aspects of the person
-the physical environment of communication
-time
-communication with signs and signals
True or False: North Americans normally hold business conversations with a distance of 5½ to 8 feet between speakers.
True
True or False: North American businesspeople consider it appropriate to arrive late for an appointment or a meeting
False: North American businesspeople consider it rude to arrive late for an appointment or a meeting
True or False: North Americans are also distinctly future oriented.
True
Functions of organizational communication
include sharing information, providing performance feedback, integrating and coordinating parts of the organization, persuading others, expressing emotion, and innovating
Performance feedback
lets people know about the quality of their job performance
True or False: Feedback can reduce uncertainty, give people important cues about levels of performance and act as a motivational resource
True
Selective perception
lets receivers block out information they do not want to hear in a message
Semantic problems
communication dysfunctions that occur when the receiver's interpretation of a message differs from the sender's intended message
When can Message distortion occur
can occur when the sender and receiver do not have the same frame of reference
Message filtration
reduces a message's information content, possibly leading to misinterpretation by the receiver
Information overload
a communication dysfunction that happens when a person gets more information than he can process effectively
Message timing
affects whether communication dysfunctions will happen
Organizational silence
the absence of communication, is a serious communication dysfunction proposed by some contemporary researchers
listening process
includes both intrapersonal and interpersonal activities
active listening
the listener is responsible for the completeness of a speaker's message
-the listener is responsible for hearing a speaker's message correctly by accurately hearing the facts in a message and understanding the speaker's feelings about the message
What are the Communication roles in organizations
the five roles are initiator, relayer, liaison, terminator, and isolate.
Initiators
start communications and send more messages than they receive or pass on to someone else
Relayers
receive and pass on more messages than they start or end.
Liaisons
connect two parts of an organization but are not a members of either part
Terminators
at the end of a communication network and mainly receive messages
Isolates
are usually outside the normal communication process
Pair-wise communication
any form of oral or written communication between two people
-occurs between superiors and subordinate, between individuals of different status with no direct reporting relationship, between peers and between friends
Small group communication networks
involve three or more people directly interacting during the communication
Centralized communication networks
have a single person as a key figure in sending and receiving messages, no matter where they go in the network
Decentralized communication networks
feature freely flowing communication with no person playing a central or controlling role
Large audience communication
gets a message from one person or a few people and delivers it to many people
True or False: In Latin American cultures, people stand much closer
true
True or False: Latin Americans view time more strictly than North Americans
False: view time more casually than North Americans
True or False: Egyptians usually do not look to the future, which they define as anything more than a week away
True
Conflict
doubt or questioning, opposition, incompatible behavior, controversy, or antagonistic interaction
Functional conflict
works toward the goals of an organization or a group
Dysfunctional conflict
blocks an organization or a group from reaching its goals
-conflict is dysfunctional when it is either higher than needed by a group to reach its goals or so low that a group is less effective than it could be in reaching its goals
True or False: If the conflict level is dysfunctionally low, managers should increase the conflict
True
Intraorganization conflict
includes all types of conflict occurring within an organization
Intragroup conflict
conflict among members of a group
Intergroup conflict
conflict between two or more groups in an organization
interpersonal conflict
happens between two or more people, such as between a customer and a sales clerk
Intrapersonal conflict
happens within an individual
Interorganization conflict
conflict between two or more organizations that results from relationships between them
Latent conflict
includes factors in the person, group, or organization that might lead to conflict behavior
Perceived conflict
the moment when the parties to a conflict become aware of the conflict
Felt conflict
the emotional part of a conflict episode
-at least one individual personalizes the conflict and focuses on the parties involved, losing sight of the underlying issues
Manifest conflict
actual conflict behavior between the parties to the conflict episode
The five conflict orientations: (dominance, collaborative, compromise, avoidance, accommodative)
-dominance: person wants to win the conflict episode and overwhelm the other party
-collaborative: person wants to satisfy the desires of all parties to the conflict and sincerely wants to find a solution that satisfies everyone
-Compromise: person splits the difference so each party gets part of what it wants
-Avoidance: Person backs away from a conflict episode, possibly because of low tolerance for conflict
-Accommodative: Person focuses on the other party's needs and desires, ignoring his own needs and desires
Ambiguous jurisdiction
occurs when the organization has not clearly defined areas of decision authority
Conflict Management
focuses on maintaining conflict as functional levels for a department, work unit, or entire organization
Lose-lose methods of conflict
do not try to deal directly with the conflict
Win-lose conflict reduction methods
make one party to the conflict a clear winner and the other party a clear loser
Dominance
happens when one party to a conflict overwhelms the other
Win-win conflict reduction method
parties to the conflict episode get what they want
Integration
seeks solutions that are in the best interests of all parties
Superordinate goal
a goal desired by all parties to the conflict but unattainable by any party alone
Dialectical Inquiry
a structured debate of opposing views about solutions to a decision problem
Bases of attraction
explain why people who can potentially interact are sufficiently attracted to each other to form a cohesive group
Maintenance roles
focus on behavior processes within the group with the intent of reaching the group's goals
Task roles
focus on the group's tasks, issues, or problems
Individual roles
focus on member needs and behavior that often have little to do with the group's task
Workgroup socialization processes three phases
1) Anticipation: A potential new comer to a group develops an image of participation in the group
2) Encounter: The new group member enters the group, learns her role in it, and meets the reality of the workgroup's social processes
3) Adjustment: The new group member has successfully adapted to the workgroup's requirements and the work group has successfully adapted to the new member
routine-nonroutine dimension
describes whether the decision is common or unusual
Recurring-nonrecurring dimension
describes whether the decision happens often or infrequently
Certainty-uncertainty dimension
describes the degree of predictability of the decision
Programmed decision strategy
relies on existing rules and standard procedures, uses well-known decision criteria and applies uniform processing to a decision problem
Unprogrammed decision strategy
nonroutine, nonrecurring, and unpredictable decisions
What is the decision making processs
1) Problem identification and diagnosis
2) Identification of criteria
3) developing alternatives
4) Assesses the alternatives
5) Choose an alternative
6) carry out the decision
7) Assesses the decision's effects
Heuristics
guidelines to simplify the task of processing an often bewildering array of information developed during decision making
Availability heuristic
the tendency to recall and use information that is easily retreived from memory
representativeness heuristic
leads a decision maker to compare a current event to past events about which the person has knowledge or beliefs
anchoring and adjustment
a heuristic decision makers use to get a starting point for a decision and then adjust beyond that point
judgment biases
When the heuristic is not right for the decision, it can introduce systematic judgment biases that lead to wrong or irrational decisions
ease of recall bias
occurs when people recall vivid, recent events more easily than other events
-an effect supervisors judgment in performance appraisal
misconception of chance bias
occurs when people judge the randomness of a sequence of events from its appearance although the number of events is statistically too small for that conclusion
-Ex: manufacturing manager could question the randomness of a sampling process that resulted in good, good, good, good, bad, good, bad, bad, bad, good,- statistical theory says that one sequence is equally likely as any other sequence when drawn randomly
overconfidence bias
can lead to inaccurate judgments when answering questions about which the person has little knowledge
-ex: manager firmly believes her sales estimate for "Gillie's Hatch Valley Chile Company" is accurate. Gillie's is a real, but little known company that does not publish sales figures
confirmation trap bias
can lead to behavior that avoids disconfirming and uncomfortable information
-ex: manager tentatively decides to introduce a product and seeks only confirming evidence to reach a decision
framing effects
a form of judgment bias that affects decision makers
risk-averse behavior
people prefer to avoid risks when facing decisions involving gains
risk-seeking behavior
people prefer to take risks in decisions involving losses
nominal group technique
a procedure for generating large amounts of information about a decision problem
2 types of Judgement biases
-Heuristics: guidelines to simplify the task of processing an often bewildering array of information developed during decision making process
-Judgment biases: lead to wrong or irrational decisions
Types of Heuristics
availability heuristic, representativeness heuristic, anchoring and adjustment
Types of Judgment biases
-ease of recall bias
-misconception of chance bias
-overconfidence bias
-confirmation trap bias
Defense mechanisms
-Fixation: fixed on a problem and keeps bringing it up
-Displacement: directing emotions at someone that is not the source of anger
-Negativism: active or passive resistance
Ex. Someone gets put in a meeting that they don't want to be in and try to derail it