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GEOL 353 FINAL
Terms in this set (107)
What is the difference between natural phenomena (or natural events), natural hazards, and natural disasters? Answer in your own words, using a sentence or two to explain each term and giving an example of each term in your explanation.
What is a reinsurance company? why do these companies have a special interest in keeping track of natural hazards and natural disasters?
A reinsurance company is an insurance that sells insurance to other insurance companies. These companies have a special interest in keeping track of natural hazards and natural disasters because it allows for the insurance companies to be able to pay its debt after a major disaster.
What parts of the world experience natural hazards?
all parts of the world experience natural hazards.
Are natural hazards rare events or common events worldwide?
According to the World Meteorological Organization, every dollar that is invested in disaster preparedness can prevent ________ in economic losses related to disasters.
Which of the following is an example of a natural hazard that occurs slowly?
Which of the following is not a natural hazard?
Changes in Earth's magnetic field
All of these are natural hazards
Which of the following is most likely to be a natural disaster?
A flood on the Ganges River in Bangladesh
Based on what you learned from the U.S. Geological Survey Earthquake Map, approximately how many earthquakes occur in the U.S. every week?
1000 to 2000
Based on what you learned from the Smithsonian/U.S. Geological Survey Weekly Volcanic Activity Report website, how many volcanoes are usually erupting worldwide?
According to this week's video (National Geographic - Top Ten Disasters), what four factors are used to rate the severity of a natural disaster?
Choose four factors from the list below:
-Magnitude (size) of the event
-deaths caused by the event
-economic damage caused by the event
-lasting legacy of the event
Which of the disasters covered in the video was the most economic costly disaster in human history?
the 2011 japanese earthquake and tsunami
Describe how early warning systems for earthquakes (for example, ShakeAlert) rely on differences in the arrival times of P-waves and S-waves to give people time to prepare for earthquakes. Also include at least three examples of the types of precautions these systems allow for.
Explain in your own words what mitigation means. Give at least one example from this week's lecture or reading material of:
1) Ways we can mitigate as a society against earthquakes,
2) Ways we can mitigate as individuals against earthquakes.
Mitigation is the lessening the severity, graveness, or seriousness before a natural disaster occurs.
1) A way people can mitigate as a society against earthquakes is by implementing systems like the Shakealert and implementing laws to better prepare our state.
2)A way people can mitigate as individuals by being aware where we live and knowing protocols to follow if a natural disaster is to occur. Just being overall prepared
to determine how far away from a seismograph station an earthquake occurred, scientists plot the difference in arrival times between:
p and s waves
What is the minimum number of seismograph stations a scientist must have data from in order to locate the epicenter of an earthquake?
Earthquake shaking can be measured using the following scales:
-the richter scale
-the moment magnitude scale
-the mercalli scale
-all of the above
Which of the following measures an earthquake's intensity based on the observed effects on people and structures?
the mercalli scale
which type of seismic waves travel the fastest?
In general, the most destructive earthquake waves are _______.
Most earthquakes occur:
Along the edges of oceanic and continental plates.
What parts of the U.S are the highest risk for earthquakes?
-Western states, especially Washington, Oregon, Nevada, and California.
-Most of Alaska
-Hawaii, especially the big island of Hawaii
- the region near the borders of Kentucky, Tennessee, Arkansas, and Missouri
Which of the following hazards are closely associated with earthquakes? Choose all that apply.
Earthquakes can occur along which of the following types of faults?
-all of the above
Explain what caused the March 2011 earthquake in Japan and the December 2004 earthquake in Sumatra. How were these two events similar? Your answer should include a brief description of what is happening to the tectonic plates in both regions.
What four steps does the Pacific Tsunami Warning Center take to alert the public of possible tsunamis?
1. Locating the earthquake
2. determining the travel time of tsunami
3. Checking/monitoring the sea level gauges for evidence of tsunami
4. Alerting the public in the the tsunami waning zone by issuing appropriate messages (tv, radio, etc.)
In all cases, tsunamis waves are caused by:
Sudden displacement of water
What types of events cause tsunamis? Choose all that apply.
the most common cause of tsunamis is _________________.
what type of plate boundaries generate the most tsunamis?
convergent plate boundaries - subduction zones
In deep water, tsunamis move at _____________. When they reach shallow water in coastal areas, the tsunami _____________ and ____________ in height.
fast speeds, slow down, increases
How high were the tsunami waves created by ancient landslides in Hawaii?
About 1,000 feet (about 300 meters).
How many giant landslides have occurred in Hawaii during the past 4 million years?
Could they occur again in the future?
at least 15
If a large asteroid landed in the Pacific Ocean between the Hawaiian Islands and the west coast of North America, what would be the impact of the tsunami waves?
They would wash out coastal cities on the west coasts of Canada, the U.S. and Mexico, and would cover most of the coastal areas of Hawaii.
Is an event like that described in Question 10 likely to occur?
Once tsunami waves wash inland in populated areas, what do they consist of?
Water, sediments, natural debris, and manmade debris (houses, cars, boats, etc).
How many deaths are estimated to occur in Portland due to building collapse? List 4 preparations Portland has made to mitigate deaths from building collapse. (You can find answers to both these questions in the reading assignment Portland Monthly - The Big One: A Northwest Earthquake Survival Guide.)
The estimate deaths to occur in Portland due to building collapse is a range of 650 to 6000. 2012 portland voters passed a $482 million bond to improve schools, much of it planned for seismic retrofitting. 1998 bond allowed Portland Fire Bureau to retrofit or rebuild all 30 of its facilities for the strongest earthquakes. They now have a "urban search and rescue" squad on both sides of the river trained to find people in rubble. In the process of planning to choose a shelter during the aftermath.
How will a Cascadia earthquake impact transportation in Portland? Your answer should describe at least four major impacts on transportation. (You can find these answers in the reading assignment Portland Monthly - The Big One: A Northwest Earthquake Survival Guide.)
How will the transportation problems you described above impact rescue and recovery efforts after an earthquake?
People will be stuck where they are for some time. Portland bridges will collapse. Roads will be cracked and have sinks because they are built on fill and alluvial deposits. The tunnel has a high chance of collapsing because it was built before seismic codes. Shipping lanes and ports will be destroyed. It will impact rescue and recovery because the people trying to help will have little to no chance of moving through the city. There wont be a way for people to get out of the city and it will be difficult for people to get help.
Scientists estimate there is a ___________ % chance of a M 9+ Cascadia earthquake occurring in the next
years and a
__________ % chance of a M 8+ Cascadia earthquake occurring in the next
years. The frequency of occurrence for these earthquakes is once every 500 years for a M 9+ earthquake, and once every 250 for a M 8+ earthquake. The last Cascadia earthquake occurred
Based on the information in Question 4, how seriously should the general population take the threat of large earthquakes occurring in Oregon?
What percentage of single-family homes in Portland were built before the first seismic codes, which means they are probably not bolted to their foundations and will be uninhabitable after a large Cascadia earthquake?
This week's video showed layers of sand that Brian Atwater found in the pits he dug along the coast of Oregon and Washington. Which of the following best describes how these layers of sand were deposited?
What evidence indicates that a large subduction zone earthquake occurred in the Pacific Northwest about 300 years ago?
-"Ghost forests" along the Pacific Northwest coast, these trees died about 300 years ago.
-Japanese records of a tsunami that occurred 316 years ago, but was not associated with an earthquake in Japan.
-Oral traditions from Native Americans living in coastal areas of the Pacific Northwest about 300 years ago.
-Subsidence of several feet along the coast of the Pacific Northwest, geologic evidence suggests this subsidence occurred about 300 years ago.
Based on this week's reading materials, and this week's and last week's videos, how long could the shaking last during a large Cascadia earthquake?
up to five minutes
Which of the following describes "slow earthquakes"?
-Earthquakes that occur over a period of several weeks, rather than several seconds or minutes.
-Earthquakes that cannot be felt, even though they release the same amount of energy as a "normal" magnitude 6-7 earthquake.
-Earthquakes that occur about every 14-15 months in the Pacific Northwest.
-Earthquakes that might act as a warning for a much larger Cascadia earthquake.
One way that Oregon and Washington have mitigated against loss of life during large tsunamis is by building vertical evacuation structures in all coastal towns and cities.
A large subduction zone earthquake in the Pacific Northwest will likely trigger a tsunami with waves ____ feet high and lasting up to ____ hours.
10-15 feet high, 8 hours
In general, subduction zone earthquakes in the Pacific Northwest are much larger than any recorded earthquake that has occurred in California.
When you created your own volcano on the National Geographic - Forces of NatureLinks to an external site. website, what criteria resulted in explosive eruptions? What criteria resulted in effusive eruptions? (There were two criteria that you experimented with in this exercise, be sure to describe each of them.)
Of the four types of volcanoes listed in this exercise, which ones tend to erupt explosively? Which ones tend to erupt effusively?
Describe three methods scientists use to monitor volcanoes for signs of activity. For each method, explain how the information is collected (what is measured, or what type of equipment is used), and what the information tells scientists about the volcano.
Which of the following tectonic features are associated with volcanic activity?
Choose all that apply.
-divergent plate boundaries
-convergent plate boundaries
Which of the following is the most common type of volcanic gas?
water vapor (H2O)
Which of the following volcanic gases are hazardous to people, animals, agriculture, and property?
Choose all that apply.
-Hydrogen halides (HF, HCI, HBr)
-Hydrogen Sulfide (H2S)
-Carbon dioxide (CO2)
-sulfur dioxide (SO2)
Sudden melting of glaciers on volcanoes can generate which of the following hazards?
a pyroclastic flow can best be describe as:
a flow of hot gas and ash
which of the following can trigger landslides on volcanoes?
Intrusion of magma into the volcano
Explosive eruptions of the volcano
Large earthquakes directly beneath or nearby the volcano
Heavy rainfall that saturates the slopes of the volcano
Which of the following is produced by the least explosive types of volcanic eruptions?
Which of the following is the most widespread and frequent volcanic hazard?
tephra (or volcanic ash)
The best definition for the term volcano is a tall cone-shaped mountain that erupts lava.
Describe the two most effective methods of landslide mitigation, or how to reduce the effects of landslides. If either of these methods needs further explanation (for example, details about how landslide hazards are reduced) include this in your explanation.
The two most effective methods of landslide mitigation is reducing the construction on steep slopes and of existing landslides. Also, stabilizing structures/slopes of unstable slopes can dramatically help with reduction of landslides. Adding vegetation like trees can help dramatically reduce the risk of landslides happening by increasing the soil cohesion and causing the water to drain easily.
According to the DOGAMI interactive map showing landslides in Oregon, where do most landslides in the state occur? What two factors do you think have the most influence on where landslides occur in Oregon? Your answer should explain why the majority of landslides occur where they do, and why landslides are less common in other regions of the state.
In case you need it, here is a direct link to the DOGAMI interactive maps (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site..
Where in the U.S. do landslides occur?
all 50 states
What 3 general regions of the United States are most susceptible to landslides?
-the west coast
-the rocky mountain region
-the Appalachian region
Why are the regions you chose in Question 4 more susceptible to landslides than other parts of the U.S.?
A) Name two natural hazards we have discussed this term that can trigger landslides.
B) Name at least one more natural hazard that we have not discussed, but that can also trigger landslides.
Your answers should be brief, just a few words for each answer.
1. Two natural hazards that can trigger landslides are earthquakes and volcanoes.
2. Hurricanes can probably cause landslides because the amount of movement and precipitation produced.
Do typical homeowners insurance policies cover geologic hazards like landslides?
Do typical homeowners insurance policies cover geologic hazards like landslides?
slope saturation by water
Which of the following best describes creep (pertaining to landslides, not people):
imperceptibly slow, steady, downward movement of soil or rock
Which of the following best describes debris flows:
rapid mass movement of loose soil, rock, organic matter, and water that flows as a slurry downslope.
The largest landslide in the world is over ________ thick and more than ____________ in area.
1000 feet, 400 square miles
What is meant by the term 100-year flood? Your answer should include something about the magnitude and the percent chance of happening in any given year.
Can more than one 100-year flood occur in a 100 year time span?
Can more than one 100-year flood occur in 1 year?
Describe 4 ways that levees can fail.
This question is from the video: How levees fail, how we fix them, see the homework assignment for a link to the video.
One way is seepage where the water can go through the material of the levee. It seeps out.
Another way is stability where a section of the levee gets cut off by the water.
A third way levees fail is by erosion. Toe erosion steepens the slope (makes it unstable) to the point of collapse of foundation.
Another way is height where the water spills over the levee.
how are mudflows different from landslides?
Mudflows are rivers of liquid and flowing mud, they contain less solid material than landslides.
how much economic damage is caused by floods each year in the United States?
About 6 billion dollars
How many people are killed by floods each year in the United States?
about 140 people
Which of the following are hazards that exist after flood waters recede?
-pesticides and fuel
-dangerous mold blooms
-waterborne diseases like typhoid, hepatitis A, and cholera
what is a levee?
-natural river banks that are elevated from the river bed.
-Manmade river banks that are elevated from the river bed.
which of the following best describes how seepage from levees is fixed?
digging a trench into the levee and filling it with a watertight wall.
which of the following best describes how the stability of levees is fixed?
the levee is widened and flattened.
which of the following best describes how the height of levees is fixed?
the levee is constructed higher, or a flood wall is built.
which of the following best describes how erosion of levees is fixed?
building a layer of rock to strengthen the levee and its foundation.
how old are the oldest levee systems in California?
more than 100 years old.
Part A) Explain the difference between a hurricane, cyclone, and typhoon.
Part B) Explain the difference between a tropical depression, a tropical storm, and a hurricane.
1. A hurricane is a rotating storm which usually occurs in the Atlantic and Northeast Pacific oceans and they have winds usually exceeding 74mph. Typhoons usually happen in the western pacific ocean. A cyclone usually occur in the Indian Ocean and the Bay of Bengal.
2. A tropical depression is a thunderstorm that usually has wind speeds that exceed 25 mph. A tropical storm has wind speeds more than 39 mph and can reach to 73 mph. A hurricane usually has wind speeds of 74 mph.
When you created your own hurricane, what 3 things were needed in order to generate a hurricane? Of the 5 hurricanes you generated, which one had the greatest intensity? What category was this hurricane?
Three things needed to generate a hurricane is warm water temperature, low pressure, and high humidity. My 4 hurricane had the greatest intensity which was considered a category 5. It started in the ocean and then move to the land.
because of the Coriolis effect, hurricanes rotate _________ in the Northern Hemisphere and _________ in the Southern Hemisphere.
can hurricanes spawn tornadoes?
which of the following are the main parts of a hurricane?
what is the most turbulent part of a hurricane?
what is the most dangerous result of a hurricane once it reaches land?
what is the effect of wind shears on hurricanes?
they make hurricanes weaker
hurricanes can be up to _________ miles in diameter.
hurricanes can be up to ________ miles in height.
Of the hundreds of storm systems generated in tropical regions every year, how many typically develop into hurricanes?
Less than 50% (40 to 50)
Storm surges can be up to ______ high and can extend up to ________ along coastlines.
20 feet, 100 miles
According to this week's video (NOVA - Inside the Megastorm) what unusual meteorological conditions affected the path of Hurricane Sandy? List at least 3 unusual conditions.
According to this week's video, the unusual meteorological conditions that affected the path of Hurricane Sandy is, first of all, the Bermuda high was missing which usually steers the hurricane. Secondly, a nearby storm caused Sandy to get even bigger. Lastly, the surface water was warmer than usual which increased the intensity of the storm.
What causes the polar jet stream to become "wavy"? (Be sure to include a description of what is happening to different air currents.)
What causes the jet stream to become wavy is cold air descending from the North with warm air rising from the South. This forms the steep ridges in the way the air flows. With less ice in the Arctic means that there is warmer temperatures in the North which causes the jet stream to become more wavy.
The polar jet stream is created by:
Convergence of cold air descending from the Arctic and warm air rising from the tropics.
What direction do winds in the polar jet stream travel?
toward the east
What part of the atmosphere do winds in the polar jet stream travel?
the lower layers of the atmosphere, where they have a strong influence on weather
Winds in the polar jet stream can travel at speeds greater than 100 mph.
what is the polar jet stream strongest?
in winter months when the temperature difference between warm and cold air in the Northern Hemisphere is at its highest.
What parts of the world are impacted by the northern polar jet stream?
when the polar jet stream gets "wavy" and moves slower, what happens to the weather patterns associated with it?
-storms tend to stall out and stay in one place for longer
-storms become more intense
what types of weather events are associated with a "wavy" polar jet stream?
-tropical storms along the east coast, for example Hurricane Sandy
-severe snowstorms along the east coast
-droughts in the Midwest.
-usually cold winters in Europe.
How would you describe the path of the jet stream shown in the Boston Globe article? (The Boston Globe: Blame jet stream, arctic air for repeat snowstorms). (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site.
more "wavy" than usual, bringing heavy snow storms to New England.
Rising temperatures in the arctic make the jet stream _________ "wavy," increasing the likelihood of ________severe storms.
how are mudflows different from landslides?
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