35 terms

Anesthesia

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alpha 2 agonists
tend to cause a drastic decrease in heart rate along with respiratory depression and blood pressure decrease. tend to see drastic reduction in cardiac output which is why these should be used in young and healthy patients only. muscle relaxation, analgesic affects and sedation
what decreases norepinephrine
alpha 2 agonists
Xylazine
aka: Rompun
first widely used A2A
sometimes used to induce vomitting in cats
often used with other drugs like ketamine
reversible with Yohimbine
cattle are very sensitive to this
dexmederomidine
aka: dexdomitor
most commonly used in dogs and cats
premeds in low doses
dose based on body surface area
reversible with Atipamezole (anti sedan)
kitty and doggy magic
A2A + narcotic + cyclohexamuine
(dexmedetomidine + butorphanol + ketamine)
detomidine
aka: dormosedan (most potent sedative discussed)
only approved for use in horses
significant caudal muscle relaxation
allows horses to remain standing
alpha 2 antagonists
reversal agents: yohimbine and atipamazole
sedative and analgesic effects reversed
tolazoline
non specific alpha antagonist
used to reverse all effects of xylazine in ruminents
opioids (narcotics)
in general, the pure agonists will treat moderate to severe pain. They normally cause depression in dogs but may actually cause excitement in cats and horses. generally, the mixed agonists/antagonists are not effective against moderate to severe pain
morphine
pure (full) agonist
highest likelihood to cause vomiting
controlled
oxymorphone
-pure (full) agonist
-fewer side effects than morphine
-moderate to severe pain
-expensive
-MOST HEART FRIENDLY
-controlled
hydromorphone
-pure (full) agonist
-similar to morphine but less likely to cause excitement in cats
methadone
-pure (full) agonist
-least likely to cause vomiting in cats
-antagonist to the NMDA receptor
fentanyl (recuvyra)
-pure (full) agonist
-one of the most potent analgesics for moderate to severe pain
-profound sedation
-patch dosing
fentanyl patch dosing
-cats: apply 6 hours prior
-dogs: apply 12 hours prior
Buprenorphine
-aka: buprenex
-partial agonist
-binds and stimulates mu receptors
-mild to moderate pain relief
-longest duration of analgesia (6-12hrs)
-very slow onset and very long duration
-can go PO in cats
simbadol
type of buprenorphine
butorphanol
-aka: torbugesic, torburol
-mixed (agonist/antagonist)
-stimulates kappa receptors but blocks mu
-mild to moderate visceral pain
nalbuphine
-aka: nubain
-mixed (agonist/antagonist)
-stimulates kappa, strongly blocks mu
-weak analgesic properties
narcotic antagonist
narcan (naloxone)
neuroleptanalgesic
opiod and tranquilizer agent together
(acepromazine + morphine)
controlled substances
-all opioids except for nalbuphine
-benzodiazapines
not controlled substances
-anticholinergics
-phenothiazines
-alpha 2's
opioid controlled drugs
MOHMMFBB
analgesic property drugs
some alpha 2's and opioids
reasons for premeds and when they are typically administered
-calm/sedate an excited, frightened or vicious animal
-reduce possible adverse effects of anesthetics (bradycardia)
-reduce amount of anesthetic required
-reduce pain during surgery and in postoperative period
-15-20 minutes prior usually IM or SQ. caution with iv admin which are usually given in lower dosages
Anticholinergics
-blocks the release of acetylcholine at the mu receptors of the parasympathetic nervous system.
-no analgesic properties
-can reduce gastric motility
-may increase heart rate
-may cause mydriasis and dry out the oral cavity
atropine
-derived from nightshade plant
-blocks vagus nerve stimulation (cranial #10)
-aka: heart protectant
-short duration (60-90min)
-often used in ER
-organophosphate toxicity
-crosses placental barrier
glycopyrrolate
many advantages over atropine such as duration, less tachycardia, smaller dose volume, no significant placental crossing
phenothiazines
-sedation only, no analgesia
-suppress the sympathetic nervous system
Acepromazine
antiemetic effect but may lower the seizure threshold and cause penile prolapse in stallions and boxers may be sensitive
benzodiazepines
used as premeds for muscle relaxation and also for seizures. no analgesic properties. produce MINIMAL sedation
diazepam
-aka: valium
-IV and PO only
-maybe a problem with some cocktails
-not water soluble
-benzo category
zolazepam
-aka: component of telazol
-benzo category
midazolam
-aka: versed
-water soluble
-appetite stimulant in cats and ruminants
-can be given IM, SQ or IV
-minimal sedation when used alone
-minimal cardio effects