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Ch 7 Suicide
Terms in this set (50)
It has been estimated that _____ people die by suicide each year, more than 38,000 in the United States alone
Around 25 million other people throughout the world—as many as 1 million in the United States—make unsuccessful attempts to kill themselves
A suicide attempt that does not result in death.
A self-inflicted death in which the person acts intentionally, directly, and consciously.
clearly intend to end their lives at the time they attempt suicide.
clearly intend to end their lives, but they act out of a belief that the process of death is already under way and that they are simply hastening the process.
Many suicides among the elderly and very sick fall into this category.
do not believe that their self-inflicted death will mean the end of their existence. They believe they are trading their present lives for a better or happier existence.
experience mixed feelings, or ambivalence, about their intent to die, even at the moment of their attempt, and they show this ambivalence in the act itself.
Although to some degree they wish to die, and they often do die, their risk-taking behavior does not guarantee death.
A death in which the victim plays an indirect, hidden, partial, or unconscious role.
A psychological autopsy in which clinicians and researchers piece together information about a person's suicide from the person's past.
It is estimated that there are ____ nonfatal suicide attempts for every fatal suicide
South Korea, Russia, Hungary, Germany, Austria, Finland, Denmark, China, and Japan have very high rates—
more than 20 suicides annually per 100,000 persons
Egypt, Mexico, Greece, and Spain have relatively low rates
fewer than 5 per 100,000
The United States and Canada fall in between, each with a suicide rate of
England has a rate of 9 per 100,000
12.1 per 100,000 persons
three times as many women attempt suicide as men
yet men succeed at more than four times the rate of women
Around the world
19 of every 100,000 men kill themselves each year; the suicide rate for women is 4 per 100,000
Guns are used in
56 percent of the male suicides in the United States, compared with 31 percent of the female suicides
Some of these statistics on suicide have been questioned
Analyses suggest, for example, that the actual rate of suicide may be 15 percent higher for African Americans and 6 percent higher for women than usually reported
Four such stressors are particularly common—
social isolation, serious illness, an abusive environment, and occupational stress.
a feeling of psychological pain that seems intolerable to the person
A pessimistic belief that one's present circumstances, problems, or mood will not change.
Viewing problems and solutions in rigid "either/or" terms.
Studies indicate that as many as 70 percent of the people who attempt suicide
Autopsies reveal that about one-quarter of these people are legally intoxicated
drink alcohol just before they do so
Research suggests that as many as 70 percent of all suicide attempters had been experiencing severe depression, 20 percent chronic alcoholism, and 10 percent schizophrenia.
correspondingly, as many as 25 percent of people with each of these disorders try to kill themselves.
suicide and mental disorders
However, even when researchers factor out these issues, they find increases in the risk of suicide among the relatives and friends of people who recently committed suicide. This additional risk factor is often called the
social contagion effect
suicide attempters (48 percent) than among nonsuicidal individuals (24 percent)
A classic study of 200 family histories, for example, found that early parental loss was much more common among
are committed by people over whom society has little or no control. These people are not concerned with the norms or rules of society, nor are they integrated into the social fabric.
this kind of suicide is more likely in people who are isolated, alienated, and nonreligious.
are committed by people who are so well integrated into the social structure that they intentionally sacrifice their lives for its well-being.
those committed by people whose social environment fails to provide stable structures, such as family and religion, to support and give meaning to life. Such a societal condition, called anomie (literally, "without law"), leaves people without a sense of belonging.
serotonin levels have been found to be
low in people who commit suicide
studies found that suicide attempters with low serotonin activity are
10 times more likely to make a repeat attempt and succeed than are suicide attempters with higher serotonin activity
suicide usually results from depression and self-directed anger
Psychodynamic theorists believe that
kills himself or herself each year, compared with 11 of every 100,000 people between 15 and 24 years old
1 of every 100,000 people under 15 years of age in the United States
15 of every 100,000 between 65 and 84
and 18 of every 100,000 people over age 85
19 of every 100,000 between 45 and 64 years old
Boys outnumber girls by as much as 5 to 1
it has been estimated that 1 of every 100 children tries to harm himself or herself
more than 6 percent of all deaths among children between the ages of 10 and 14 years are caused by
have thought about suicide
Clinical interviews with schoolchildren have revealed that between 6 and 33 percent
commit suicide in the United States each year
at least 12 percent of teenagers have persistent suicidal thoughts and 4 percent make suicide attempts
Around 10 percent of all adolescent deaths are the result of suicide
According to official records, approximately 1,400 teenagers (age 13 to 18), or 7 of every 100,000
known someone who had attempted suicide
One pioneering study found that 93 percent of adolescent suicide attempters had
most experts believe that the ratio is 25 to 1
although estimates range as high as 200 to 1
Far more teenagers attempt suicide than actually kill themselves
5 of every 100,000 African American teens and 5 of every 100,000 Hispanic American teens
4.5 of every 100,000 Asian American teens now commit suicide each year.
Currently, more than 15 of every 100,000 American Indian teenagers commit suicide each year
Around 7.5 of every 100,000 white American teenagers commit suicide each year, compared with
a rate that rises to 18 per 100,000 among the very elderly, as you read earlier
Elderly people commit over 19 percent of all suicides in the United States, yet they account for only 14 percent of the total population
More than 15 of every 100,000 people over the age of 65 in the United States commit suicide
A program that tries to identify people who are at risk of killing themselves and to offer them crisis intervention.
Suicide prevention program
A treatment approach that tries to help people in a psychological crisis view their situation more accurately, make better decisions, act more constructively, and overcome the crisis.
is a nationwide, around-the-clock hotline available for LGBTQ (lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and questioning) teenagers who are thinking about suicide.
a questionnaire to estimate the caller's potential for suicide
inpatients at mental hospitals or other psychiatric facilities.
Approximately 4 percent of all suicides are committed by people who are
Around two-thirds of patients who are admitted have aroused concern that they will harm themselves
Suicidal behavior or thinking is the most common reason for admission to a mental hospital.
No one kills himself who has not wanted to kill another or at least wished the death of another.
About _____ percent of teens who attend follow-up care after a suicide attempt terminate treatment against their therapist's advice.
The number of teenagers who attempt to kill themselves far outnumbers those who actually succeed in ending their lives. It is estimated that for every completed teen suicide, there are as many as _____ attempts.
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