Anthro-360 Test 2

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Terms in this set (...)

White skeletal characteristics
Nose: width is narrow, bridge is high, spine is pronounced
Face: profile is straight, shape is narrow, eye orbits are angular, lower eye border is receding
Vault: heavy browridges, rugged muscle marks
Jaws & teeth: jaw is small, upper incisors are spatulate
Black skeletal characteristics
Nose: width is wide, bridge is low, spine is small
Face: profile is projecting, shape is narrow, eye orbits are rectangular, lower eye border is receding
Vault: small browridges, smooth muscle marks
Jaws & teeth: jaw is large, upper incisors are spatulate
Asian skeletal characteristics
Nose: width is medium, bridge is low, spine is small
Face: profile is intermediate, shape is wide, eye orbits are rounded, lower eye border is projecting
Vault: small browridges, smooth muscle marks
Jaws & teeth: jaw is large, upper incisors are shoveled
Race vs Ancestry
Race encompasses inherited, characteristic traits. Ancestry is simply a line of descent
What is craniometry?
Measurement of the cranium (the main part of the skull), usually the human cranium
Are they always accurate in their assessment?
No. The distributions of measurements used in these methods are based on samples not necessarily representative of the modern population of the U.S.
Female os coxae characteristics
Greater sciatic notch: wide
Sub-pubic angle: U-shaped
Inlet/outlet shape: rounder
Preauricular sulcus: well developed
Male os coxae characteristics
Greater sciatic notch: narrow
Sub-pubic angle: V-shaped
Inlet/outlet shape: more heart shaped
Preauricular sulcus: rare
Female skull characteristics
Overall robusticity: small and smooth
Slope of forehead (frontal): high, rounded
Supra orbital ridge (browridge): small, none
Mastoid process: small, nonprojecting
Occipital torus & nuchal crest: smooth, hook uncommon
Shape of chin (mental eminence): pointed
Male skull characteristics
Overall robusticity: large and rugged
Slope of forehead (frontal): slanted
Supra orbital ridge (browridge): large
Mastoid process: large, projecting
Occipital torus & nuchal crest: rugged with hook
Shape of chin (mental eminence): broad
Sexing subadults
Very difficult (only 70% accuracy). Teeth and wrist bones seem to provide the most accurate results
Subadults tooth eruption
When the roots reach approximately one-half to three-quarters of their final length, the teeth emerge from their crypts into the mouth
Know how to use subadult dental eruption chart in the book!
:-)
Subadult ossification centers
11th gestation week - 806 centers
Birth - 450 centers
Adult - 206 bones
Fontanelles
A space between the bones of the skull in an infant or fetus, where ossification is not complete and the sutures not fully formed. The main one is between the frontal and parietal bones
Subadult long-bone growth
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Subadult epiphyseal fusion - how do we use this aging technique?
Sequence of growth, termination, and fusion of bones. The timing may vary but sequence is more stable. Stage 1 has no union, stage 2 is partial closure, stage 3 is complete union
Adult pubic symphysis - what does this look like on a young, middle, or older adult?
Early adulthood - the surface is rugged has ridges/intervening grooves.

35 years - the surface becomes smoother bound by a rim, as it loses relief.

Over 35 years - continues to erode and deteriorate with progressive changes.
Adult auricular surface - what does this look like on a young, middle, or older adult?
The texture of the bone becomes more coarse with age (same roughness of fine sandpaper). The porosity increases.
Adult suture closure
Redone by Lovejoy and Meindl in 1985. Developed system for aging the anterior and vault
Radiating lines
Most common fracture lines - disperse outward, like an irregular sunburst, from the area of applied force
Hoop fractures
Caused by inward & outward bending of the surface of bone
Tension - direction
These types of breaks are more common in accidents than deaths from other types of violence. Tension forces are most common in dislocations where the pulling force is applied to a bony process by way of a tendon
Compression - direction
Pushes down on bone, causing discontinuities and/or fracture lines. Most common on skulls
Blunt trauma - type
Caused by a low-velocity force that has a wide area of impact on bone. Generally caused by compression, bending, and shearing forces. Wide instrument that has a flat or round surface
Sharp trauma - type
Usually results from either compression or shearing forces applied dynamically over a narrow focus. Chop marks or incisions. Pointed or edged instrument
Dynamic force - speed
Sudden stress, that is, force that is delivered powerfully and at high speed. Most common form of fracturing force and typically caused by a bludgeon, knife, or projectile
Static force - speed
Stress that is applied slowly. The force starts low and builds to the point where the bone breaks. An example is strangulation
Main takeaways from Kobari
Bioarchaeology - the study of past cultures through human osteological analysis. He studied an extremely advanced culture for the time. Extreme drought conditions? Resource abundance? Nutritional deficiency, spina bifida, dental pathologies, diarrhea
Main takeaways from McNamara (genes)
Nuclear DNA is inherited from parents and unique to individuals (even siblings). Mitochondrial is maternally inherited. Study short tandem repeats to identify a person who committed a crime
Main takeaways from Wedel
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