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Child Development // Midterm 4
Terms in this set (50)
At 38 weeks (+ when the fetus weighs about 6 to 8 pounds) the fetal brain signals what?
The release of hormones
What is a type of hormone released and what does it do?
Oxytocin: Prepares the fetus for delivery and starts labor
How many hours of active labor is an average baby born in in a first birth?
How many hours of active labor is an average baby born in in a subsequent birth?
7 hours of active labor for subsequent births although, labor may take twice or half as long
Definition of active labor...
A women's birthing position also varies. What are some examples?
- Lying down
- Some women will give birth while immersed in water
What are the benefits of birthing immersed in water?
It can help the woman relax (while the fetus continues to get oxygen via the umbilical cord)
What are the concerns of birthing immersed in water?
Some physicians believe water births increase the rate of infection and the final emergence of the head is difficult for the medical team to monitor
Dependency of preferences and opinions on positions are?
Cultural and partly personal
Within a newborn's first minutes what can they do on their own?
Newborns usually breathe and cry on their own
What do the first breathes of air bring to the newborn?
First breaths of air bring oxygen to the lungs and blood, and the infant's color changes from bluish to pinkish
What can a newborns body do?
Eyes open wide, tiny fingers grab, even tinnier toes stretch and retract
What happens with the mucus of the newborn, especially if the first breaths seem shallow or strained?
Mucus in the baby's throat is removed
What happens with the umbilical cord?
The umbilical cord is cut to detach the placenta, leaving an inch or so of the cord which dries up and falls off to leave the belly button
After a baby is weighed and examined, where does the newborn go?
Given to the mother to preserve its body heat and to breast-feed a first meal
What does the first breast-feed meal contain?
Colostrum: a thick substance that helps the newborn's digestive and immune system
How closely birth matched the foregoing (APGAR) depends on what?
- The parents' preparation
- The position and size of the fetus
- The customs of the culture
In developed nations, births almost always include what?
Sterile procedures, electronic monitoring and drugs to dull the pain or speed contractions
Midwives are as skilled at delivering babies as physicians, but can't do what?
Only medical doctors are licensed to perform surgery
More than one third of US births occur...
via cesarean section whereby the fetus is removed through incision in the mother's abdomen
What are other names for a cesarean section?
a c-section or simply section
A surgical birth, in which incisions through the mother's abdomen and uterus allow the fetus to be removed quickly instead of being delivered through the vagina
Every year worldwide obstetricians, midwives, and nurses save...
millions of lives
In the United States, what is the newborn mortality rate?
1 in 250: a statistic that includes very fragile newborns weight
In advanced nations what is the mother mortality rate?
1 in 10,000 women die as a result of complications from abortion or birth
In poor nations, what is the mother mortality rate?
The rate is 100 times higher than that of an advanced nation
Where do most U.S. births now take place?
In hospital labor rooms with high-tech operating rooms nearby
Another 5% of the US births occur where?
In birthing centers (not in a hospital)
How many births take place at home?
Less than 1% occur at home (illegal in some jurisdictions)
Are in home births planned?
About half of the home births are planned and half are not because of unexpected rapid labor
Why is unexpected rapid labor hazardous?
Because no one is nearby to rescue a newborn in distress
More women now have who?
A doula: a woman who helps with the birth process
What is the history of a doula?
Traditionally in Latin America, a doula was the only professional who attended childbirth. Now doulas are likely to arrive at the woman's home during early labor and later work alongside a hospital's staff
What can happen before a woman realizes she is pregnant?
Harmful substances - such a cascade begins
Every week scientist discover what?
An unexpected teratogen
What can an unexpected teratogen be defined as?
- And more that increase the risk of prenatal abnormalities
agents and conditions including viruses, drugs, and chemicals that can impair prenatal development and result in birth defects or even death
agents and conditions that can harm the prenatal brain, impairing the future child's intellectual and emotional functioning
in prenatal development when a teratogen is relatively harmless in small doses but becomes harmful once exposure reaches a certain level (the threshold)
The results of a laboratory test that reports something as true when in fact it is not true
What are some examples of False Positive?
This can occur for pregnancy tests, when a woman might not be pregnant even though the test say she is, or during pregnancy when a problem is reported that actually does not exist
Low Birthweight (LBW)
A body weight at birth of less than 5½ pounds (2,5000 grams)
Very Low Birthweight (VLBW)
A body weight at birth of less than 3 pounds, 5 ounces (1,500 grams)
Extremely Low Birthweight (ELBW)
A body weight at birth of less than 2 pounds, 3 ounces (1,000 grams)
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