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3) If a stimulus is to be perceived by the nervous system, which part of the sensory pathway must


Immediately after putting on a shirt, your skin feels itchy. However, the itching stops after a few minutes and you are unaware that you are wearing a shirt. Why?

A) Sensory adaptation has occurred.

11) Which of the following is controlled by the magnitude of a receptor potential?

A) the rate of production of an action potential

15) What is the structure diagrammed in Figure 50.1?


What impact would a nonfunctioning statocyst have on an earthworm? The earthworm would not be able to

D) orient with respect to gravity.

18) The perceived pitch of a sound depends on

C) the region of the basilar membrane where the signal originated.

Which of the following contains mechanoreceptors that react to low frequency waves in much the same manner as our inner ear?

D) lateral line systems

26) What are sensillae?

D) insect taste receptors found on feet and mouthparts

What portion of the brain has neurons that receive action potentials from chemoreceptor cells in the nose?

C) olfactory bulb

31) It is very difficult to sneak up to a grasshopper and catch it. Why?

B) They have compound eyes with multiple ommatidia.

32) Which of the following is a correct statement about the cells of the human retina?

A) Cone cells can detect color, but rod cells cannot.

If a baseball player is hit in the back of the head, which part of his brain would be the most likely injured

A) the primary visual cortex

37) Skeletal fibers may be classified as either oxidative or glycolytic. Which of the following muscles would be called glycolytic?

E) the ones most easily fatigued

42) When an organism dies, its muscles remain in a contracted state termed "rigor mortis" for a brief period of time. Which of the following most directly contributes to this phenomenon? There is no

B) ATP to break bonds between the thick and thin filaments.

43) Which of the following does not form part of the thin filaments of a muscle cell?


44) What is the role of calcium in muscle contractions?

B) bind to the troponin complex, which leads to the exposure of the myosin-binding sites

45) Muscle cells are stimulated by neurotransmitters released from the synaptic terminal of

B) motor neuron axons.

49) A sustained muscle contraction due to a lack of relaxation between successive stimuli is called


50) Which of the following are shared by skeletal, cardiac, and smooth muscle?

E) thick and thin filaments

What are animals with hydrostatic skeletons able to do that animals with exoskeletons or internal skeletons cannot do?


53) Which of the following would be expected to expend the greatest amount of energy for locomotion per unit mass?

D) a robin

1) Which of the following sensory receptors is incorrectly paired with its category?

E) olfactory receptor-electromagnetic receptor

Some sharks close their eyes just before they bite. Although they cannot see their prey, their bites are on target. Researchers have noted that sharks often misdirect their bites at metal objects, and that sharks can find batteries buried under the sand of an aquarium. This evidence suggests that sharks keep track of their prey during the split second before they bite in the same way that a

D) platypus locates its prey in a muddy river.

3) The transduction of sound waves into action potentials takes place

when hair cells are bent against the tectorial membrane, causing them to depolarize and release neurotransmitter that stimulates sensory neurons.

4) Which of the following is an incorrect statement about the vertebrate eye?

A) The vitreous humor regulates the amount of light entering the pupil.

5) When light strikes the rhodopsin in a rod, retinal isomerizes, initiating a signal transduction pathway that

C) hyperpolarizes the rod, reducing its release of glutamate, which excites some bipolar cells and inhibits others.

6) During the contraction of a vertebrate skeletal muscle fiber, calcium ions

B) bind with troponin, changing its shape so that the myosin-binding sites on actin are exposed.

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