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Unit 2.2 Permanent and Unchanging Study Guide
Terms in this set (52)
According to your text, what is the central and most complete image of the Church and why do you think that it's a good image for the Church?
Body of Christ; Every other image must be understood in light of the primary image of the body of Christ.
[T/F] The Second Vatican Council document, Lumen Gentium, describes the Church as a "cultivated field."
Like the Pharisees though far more extreme, they believed that Jewish faith and identity involved every aspect of life.
Their primary concern was to make the Jewish faith relevant even under Roman rule.
Lived celibately, interpreted every law in the strictest possible way.
They were willing to accept many elements of Roman culture and continued to hold positions of power even under Roman rule
[T/F] The earliest Jewish Christians realized that their faith was distinct from Judaism.
False; thought to be another Jewish sect
Why does the image of a vineyard most clearly describe the Church's self-understanding in the biblical period?
- God himself, in the person of Jesus Christ it roots stock and main vine
- All shoots (people) of vineyard drew life from Jesus
- Gentiles could become members of God's chosen people without first becoming Jews
[T/F] Christians were not shunned or persecuted in the Roman Empire during the first three centuries.
False; shunned and persecuted in Roman Empire
What are some of the reasons Christians were despised by the Romans?
Anti-social, barbaric, cannibalistic
[T/F] Many detractors of Christianity saw the Christian God as laughable.
What is something that Christians were blamed for that caused serious consequences for them?
All of the misfortunes of empire (floods, epidemics, military invasions)
[T/F] Under emperor Nero, Christians were not just killed, they were tortured in a wide variety of ways to provide entertainment for the populace.
What law did Emperor Decius enact against Christianity during his reign?
Required everyone to offer sacrifices to gods of empire
What was it that made membership in the Christian Church attractive despite the obvious dangers?
The Christian Church offered the presence of a loving and caring God
[T/F] It was only from the fourth century onward that there was an expectation that life within the Church would be countercultural.
False; since the beginning
[T/F] The final and worst persecution of Christians occurred when Nero was emperor of Rome.
What did Constantine agree to as part of the alliance he made with Licinius?
All persecutions of Christians would stop
[T/F] From about AD 313 on Christianity became not only legal but accepted.
What was the new attitude that resulted in how Christians viewed wealth and possessions following its legalization?
Accumulate wealth for glory of God and to aid in service to the poor
In what sense was the image of the Church as the "city of God" an appropriate one during this time period?
It described a Church with an established order and hierarchy
Why did a significant number of Christians see Constantine's conversion as a disaster?
They thought the Church was falling into total denial of Christ
[T/F] Christians who fled to the desert typically did so because they viewed the Church as the city of God.
False; take up the hermit life, embracing poverty
What are the three incidents that underscored the growing importance of the papacy as the protector of hope and order?
- 452 invasion of Attila the Hun
- Pope Leo with the vandals
- Pope Gregory makes peace with the Lombards
[T/F] The image of the Church as a "sheepfold" emphasized it as a place in which one was protected from the "wolves" of evil and damnation.
Why did Pope Gregory the Great make the belief in purgatory a part of Catholic teaching?
Concern for how people could make amends to God for their sins
How did Charlemagne use the Church for his own ends?
- Thought of Church as branch of his government
- Passed a number of laws regarding the life of the Church
- Used Church as means of subduing his enemies
- Appointed bishops as he did generals
[T/F] During time of Charlemagne, conquered people were given a choice of Baptism or death?
[T/F] In the Church of the Middle Ages, the papacy was held up in high esteem.
False; prize to be fought over, feared
What goals did the Cluniacs have for Church reform?
- Free the Church from its obligations to kings and nobles (End simony)
- Enforce clerical celibacy so Church positions could not be hereditary, Church property could not be dissipated by heirs
- Obedience within the Church
What was the weak point in the Cluniac reform movement?
Attitude toward wealth
[T/F] The Cluniac movement was eventually replaced by other movements which were more insistent upon simplicity and poverty.
What was the goal of the Crusades?
"Win heaven" by taking back Holy Land from the Muslims and by saving the Eastern Church from Muslim threat
[T/F] Awareness of the "cultivated field" images of the Church was of no help for the people of the Middle Ages in their struggle to maintain their faith in and commitment to the institutional Church.
False; did help
[T/F] The sessions of the Council of Trent led to a predominant image of the Church as Mother.
What issues were raised by the protesters in regard to Catholic theology and practice?
- The role of the Bible in determining orthodox theology
- The cause and nature of sin and justification or redemption
- The number and nature of the sacraments
- How liturgy is celebrated
- The theology of the Eucharist
- The authority of the hierarchy
- The proper relationship between the Church and the state
- The role of Mary and the other saints
- The existence of free will
What triggered many of the declarations of the Council of Trent?
Both the ordained ministry and the hierarchical structure of the Church had been established by God and were
[T/F] The Greek translation of the Bible (the Vulgate) was to be considered the authoritative version of the Bible.
False; Latin translation
What distinction was pointed out by the Council between the "priesthood of all believers" and the ordained priesthood?
As Baptism changes one's character, ordination changes character even further
What powers does a priest receive from his ordination?
- speak words which change bread and wine into body and blood of Christ
- offer one, true sacrifice of Jesus
- stand in the person of Christ, speak words of forgiveness and healing
Describe how the Church acts as mother.
Leaders of Church feed, educate, and protect the Church
Importance of full participation of both the _________________________ in the liturgy
clergy and laity
All members of the Church bear __________________ for carrying out the Church's _______________________
The Church is already joined in many ways to other ____________________________________________
properly baptized Christians
The Church does not reject truth and holiness that can be found __________________________________
in other religions
The Church recognizes the inherent right of all people to choose and practice ________________________________
their own religion
Every member of the Church is called to ___________________________ and to help bring about the transformation of the world in his or her own ________________________________________
bear witness to Christ, professional/social and personal life
A total denial of Christ and a disavowal of the Christian faith
The attempt to reconcile or blend the beliefs and practices of various religions into one
Literally "the writings" Those books determined by the Church to be the word of God, normative for faith and morals
Council of Trent
Held in response to the challenges of the Protestant reformation. Clearly outlined Catholic doctrine.
Final purification of all who die in God's grace and friendship but remain imperfectly purified.
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