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Terms in this set (97)
What is Polycystic Ovarian Disease? (PCOs)
Hormonal disorder, failure to regularly release an egg (development of egg stops)
What is another name for Polycystic Ovarian Disease?
PCOs Clinical representation
Oligomenorrhea (infrequent periods)
Hirsutism (Hair on face, chest, back on women)
Ovaries 2 - 5 times normal size
"String of Pearls"
What is Endometriosis?
Endometrial tissue grows outside the cavity.
found on ovaries, fallopian tubes, colon, and bladder
Dyspareunia (Painful sex)
Metromenorrhagia (Prolonged Bleeding)
Dysmenorrhea (Painful Period)
Fibroma (Meig's Syndrome)
Most common solid mass
Benign, most common sex cord ovarian tumor
If small= asymptomatic
Large= pelvic pain
May have torsion
Follicular Cyst (Complex cyst)
Most common ovarian cyst (Benign)
Occurs when dominate follicles fail to ovulate and remain mature
Graafian follicle doesn't release ovum (no ovulation)
Follicular Cyst Clinically
Low ab pain
pressure in pelvic cavity
Nausea and vomiting
Tenderness in breasts
Changes in length of mens cylce
Follicular Cyst Sonographically
Risk Factors for developing Follicular Cyst
previous ovarian cysts
irregular mens cycle
11 YRS or younger when FIRST PERIOD occurs
Fertility drugs , hormone imbalance
Stages of Ovarian Cycle
1. Primordial Follicle
2. Primary Follicle
4. Secondary Follicle
5. Graafian Follicle
6. Ovum is released
8. Corpus lutetium diminishes
Corpus Luteum Cyst (Functional Cyst)
Cyst that forms when corpus luteum fails to regress after ovulation
What is the most common pelvic mass encountered in first trimester?
Corpus Luteum Clinically
Enlarged / Tender Ovary
Corpus Luteum Sonographically
Complex echos patterns
Areas of cystic hemorrhage within cyst
What is the 2nd most common benign tumor?
What is the most common benign tumor?
What is a Paraovarian Cyst?
epithelium-lined fluid-filled cysts
Arises from the Gartner's duct
10% of adnexal masses
small to 15cm
in order for it to be diagnosed tissue plane present btwn the cyst and the normal ovary.
Cystic Teratoma (Dermoid Cyst)
25% of all ovarian neoplasms
Filled with sebaceous material and hair
Who is most susceptible to cystic teratomas?
Young women and women of reproductive age
Cystic Teratoma Sonographically
may distort bladder (tumors could be in bladder)
Cystic Teratoma Clinically
Mild to acute abdominal pain
Pressure like symptoms
Mainly in children and young adults
Solid Teratoma Sonographically
Echogenic, complex patterens
Well-defined with internal echoes
Pelvic Inflammatory Disease
Can cause serious consequences. Uterus may be inflamed. Parametritis may develop
PID with IUD is associated with
Actinomycosis (bacteria growth)
Commonaly begins in vagina and cervix and progresses to uterus and fallopian tubes
Results from retained products of conception, appendicitis, sigmoiditis, and prolonged use of IUD.
Conditions that mimic PID
Multicystic Ovarian Disease
PID Clinical Indications
Severe Pelvic Pain
Unless there is an abscess it is difficult to see with US
Widespread chronic PID can be confused with:
Fluid filled loops of bowel (Always look for peristalsis!)
What is a Theca-Lutein Cyst (functional cyst)
Caused by high levels of hCG (Pregnancy hormone)
Large functional cyst
Theca-Lutein Cyst Songraphically
Theca-Lutein Cyst Image
Theca-Lutein is associated with:
Gestational trophoblastic disease (Women feels pregnant b/c of high hCG but no baby)
Ovarian Hyperstimulation syndrome (Ovary is overacting)
What is a Brenner Tumor?
AKA: Transitional Cell Carcinoma
Benign or Malignant
Mullerian duct origin
Who is most susceptible for Brenner Tumor?
Postmenopausal women (50-60 year olds)
Brenner Tumor Clinically
Usually Incidentally found
Brenner Tumor Sonographically
Usually very small (Less than 2cm but can get up to 10cm)
What is Mucinous Cystadenoma?
Large: 15-30 cm
Weight: up to 100 pounds
What age is most susceptible to Mucinous Cystadenoma?
13 to 45 year olds
what is 20%-25% of all benign ovarian neoplasms
Mucinous Cystadenoma Clinically
Lower abdominal pain
INCREASED ABDOMINAL GIRTH
Nausea / Vomiting
Mucinous Cystadenoma Sonographically
Simple or Separated
Internal debris (mucous)
Mucinous Cystadenoma lab values
Blood count (anemia)
Alpha Feto Protein (AFP)
Human Chorionic Gonadotropin (HCG)
Elevated Lactate Dehydrogenase (LDH)
Testosterone and Estrogen tests
What is CA-125?
determines whether a tumor is benign or not
Mucinous Cystadenocarinoma clinical indications
Mucinous Cystadenocarinoma Sonographically
Thick, irregular walls
Echogenic Material within
What is the most dangerous cause of infertility?
Chronic Salpingitis (inflammation of Fallopian tube)
Rotation of the ovary and portion of the fallopian tube on the supply vascular pedicle.
Ovarian Torsion Clinically
Severe nonspecific lover abdominal and pelvic pain
Nausea & vomiting
Pain can spread into abdomen
Ovarian Torsion Lab Values
Ovarian Torsion Sonographically
Enlarged Hypo or hyperechoic ovary
Absent arterial flow with doppler
No venous flow
ovary should be tender to transducer pressure
What is Dysgerminoma?
Malignant ovarian tumor (3%, rare)
90% are unilateral
75% occur between 10-30 years of age
May be foci of necrosis and degeneration
Prognosis poor (5 year survival rate- 24%)
Who is most susceptible to get Serous Cystadenoma?
Age 20-25 years (reproductive age)
What is the most common Epithelial Tissue?
What is Serous Cystadenoma?
Cystic in appearance
Occasionally low-level debris
up to 20cm
Serous Cystadenoma Clinically
Thecoma AKA: Theca Cell Tumor
Benign (could turn malignant but rare)
Rare in reproductive women
Serous Cystadenomcarinoma Clinically
Serous Cystadenomcarinoma Sonographically
Smaller than mucinous
loss of definition
Serous Cystadenoma Sonographically
often septated and may be peduculated
Thecoma is most common in:
Menopausal or Postmenopausal women
Foci of Calcifications
What is the function of Ovaries?
To mature oocytes until ovulation
What does a normal ovary look like?
Paired or almond shaped
Cystic folicles may be seen in the peripherally in the cortex
Appearance varies with age and menstrual cycle
What does a simple cyst look like?
Thin, Smooth walls
Majority of ovarian masses are....
Acute: fallopian tubes swollen and filled with pus
Tube will appear sausage shaped, thickened wall b/c of inflammation
A fallopian tube that is filled and distended with pus
What is Salpingitis?
Inflammation of fallopian tubes
Pain during defecation
Dyspareunia (Painful sex)
blocked fallopian tube filled with serous or clear fluid.
abdominal spasm (Colicky)
bhCG will prove difference between hydrosalpinx and ectopic pregnancy.
What will show the difference between hydrosalpinx and ectopic pregnancy?
bhCG (pregnancy hormone produced by placenta)
Hydrosalphinx Sonographic apperence
Anechoic, fluid filled tubes, sausage shaped, thin well defined walls
Fallopian Tubes distended
Can have echogenic debris
Pyosalpinx lab values
Leukocytosis (increased WBC)
Most common type of mass is
Most common type of ovarian cyst is
Most common pelvic mass encounter within the 1st trimester is
Corpus Luteum Cyst
One of the most common epithelial tumors and also second most benign tumor is
Most common sex cord ovarian tumor is
Most common large tumor in ovary is the
Most common benign tumor is
Dermoid aka Cystic Teratoma
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