Chapter 5 Reproductive Choices
Terms in this set (57)
refers to the method of preventing conception, which occurs when a sperm fertilizes an egg.
To evaluate a contraceptive method's effectiveness look at it's
perfect-use failure rate or percentage or pregnancies likely in the first year if the method is used entirely without error.
Typical- use failure
the percentage of pregnancies likely in the first year with typical use or normal number of errors and memory lapse.
prevents sperm from reaching the egg by use of a physical or chemical barrier during intercourse. Some prevent semen from having contact with the woman's body while others prevent it from passing the cervix
When used consistently and correctly condoms can be up to ____ percent effective
The options other than female and male condoms include
spermicides, the sponge, the diaphragm and the cervical cap.
refers to birth control containing synthetic estrogen and progestin. It alters a woman's biochemistry, preventing ovulation from taking place and produces changes that make it difficult for the sperm to reach the egg if ovulation does occur
were first marketed in 1960 and is up to 99 percent effective at preventing pregnancy. Combined with estrogen and progesterone to be effective,
A variety of creams, foams, and jellies that, when inserted into the vagina prior to intercourse, destroy sperm or neutralize any vaginal secretions and thereby immobilize sperm. only 71 percent effective
disadvantages of spermicides
irritation or allergic reaction. Does not prevent against gonorrhea, chlamydia, and HIV. Increase risk in urinary tract infection.
91% perfect use and 84% typical use. it is not effective for women who have given birth. Vaginal irritation has occurred.
was the first widely used birth control for women. 94% percent effective if used consistently. Can be inserted 6 hours in advance and used for multiple acts of intercourse. However, it must be used with spermicide each time and must be kept in 6 to 8 hours after intercourse.
the cervical cap
a smaller silicone cap placed inside the vagina before sexual intercourse. Any sperm getting past the cervical cap will be killed off by the spermicide. Requires a prescription and spermicides.
is a small, plastic, flexible device with a nylon string attached that is placed on the uterus through the cervix and left there for 5 to 10 years at a time.
emergency contraceptive pills
Also called the "Morning After Pill," or by its brand name, "PlanB®," it is actually a series of pills which are taken 12 hours apart that prevent the implantation of a fertilized egg.
fertility awareness methods
relies on altering sexual behavior during certain times of the month. These methods require abstaining from penis-vagina contact during fertile times.
fertility awareness strategies
1.cervical mucus method- tracking changes in vaginal secretion.
2. the body temperature method-which requires tracking subtle changes in a woman's basal body temperature
3. the calendar method, which involves recording the menstrual cycle for 12 months.
woman's fallopian tubes are sealed to block sperm's access to released eggs
some hormonal methods such as the oral contraceptives require that we remember to take the pill everyday. What other methods don't require daily remembrance?
skin patch(ortho evra), rings( nuva ring) injections( depro provera, and implants (implanon)
what are the advantages of using ortho evra
it is 99.7 percent effective with perfect use. Only have to change once a week. possibly reduces the risk of certain cancers and diseases, and lessening of the pms symptoms
what are the disadvantages of using ortho evra
requires and initial exam and prescription weekly patch changes, and monthly expense of purchasing new patches. Cardiovascular risk in women who smoke and who are over the age of 35. May cause life threatening blood clots
hormonal methods does not protective against
HIV and STIs
Manually inserted into vaginal canal for 3 weeks at a time, estrogen/progestin vaginal ring
what are the advantages of using nuva ring
when used properly the ring is up to 99.7% effective. Less likely to make an error. Protection against pregnancy for one month
The disadvantages of using nuva ring includes
initial examination and prescription
monthly ring changes
monthly expense of new ring purchases.
Increased vaginal discharge and vaginal irritation or infection.
A back up method must be used during the first week.
A long-acting, injectable progestin contraceptive.
Takes effect within 24 hours of the first shot
No need for back up methods
No user errors
99.7% effective with perfect use and 97% with typical use
Encourages sexual spontaneity
Menstruation may stop
Can be used by women who are breast feeding
What are the two types of IUDs
Paragard and mirena
Advantages of Paragard and Mirena
paragrad has to be replaced every 10 years and mirena every 5 years
Paragrad contains no hormones
Both can be used while breastfeeding
Disadvantages of Paragard and Mirena
Does not prevent STIs
Cause heavy menstrual flow and severe cramps in the first few months
Acne, headaches, nausea, breast tenderness, mood changes etc
Risk of benign ovarian cyst
ECP reduces the risk of pregnancy to
How does ecp prevent pregnancy
by delaying or inhibiting ovulation, inhibiting fertilization or blocking implantation of a fertilized egg.
Some methods of contraception relies on one or both partners altering their sexual behavior. These methods include
coitus interruptus involves removing the penis from the vagina before ejaculation.
Sterilization has become the second leading method of contraceptive for women of all ages and the leading method among married women and women over 35. True or false
removal of the uterus. Requires major surgery
Sterilization is highly effective and permanent. True or False
is not immediately effective. , removal of a segment of the vasa deferentia to produce sterility in the male. Is permanent
What question should you ask yourself when choosing a method of contraception
1. how comfortable would I be using a particular method.
2. Will this method be convenient for me and my partner.
3. Am i at risk for transmissions of STIs?
4. Do I want to have a biological child in the future?
5. how would unplanned pregnancy effect my life
6. What are religious and moral values in relation to contraceptives
7. How much will the birth control method cost
8. do i have any health factors that could limit my choice
9. Are there any additional benefits I would like to get form my contraceptive.
Some tips to boost confidence when negotiating safe sex
1. Have condoms around for when things heat up
2. talk to your partner about using protection before getting intimate.
3. practicing using contraceptives carefully to reduce error.
4. If your concerned about the interruption of using condoms, incorporate them into foreplay. Help you partner put on protection.
The vast majority of abortions occur because of unintended pregnancies. True or False
In the 1973 U.S Supreme Court case Roe v. Wade they came to the decision that
during the first trimester of pregnancy a women and her practitioner have the right to terminate the pregnacy through abortion without legal restrictions.
Abortions causes long term negative mental health outcomes. True or False
What is the percentage of abortions in the first 12 weeks of pregnancy
when deciding to have children one should evaluate their
emotions maternal and paternal health, finances , and physical health.
A positive pregnancy test is based on the secretion of
human chorionic gonadotrophin or hgc.
Pregnancy is divided into three phases or
looks at the conditions and risk factors that could affect a woman if she becomes pregnant, with a focus on factors that can affect a fetus or infant.
15 to 20 percent of pregnancies lead to miscarriages
About 10 percent of mother experience postpartum depression. True or false
characterized by mood swings , lack of energy, crying, guilt ,and depression.
An estimated 1 in 6 american couples experiences infertility. True or false
In about 20 percents of cases infertility is due to a cause involving only the male partner. TRUE or False
Reasons for high levels of infertility include
delaying childbirth to a much older age, endometriosis, pelvic inflammatory disease, and low sperm count
Most infertility in women are cause by problems with _____
Polycystic ovary syndrome percentage in women of childbearing age
5 to 10 percent