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The center of post classical west after the fall of Rome?
In the central plain of northern Europe (England, France and Germany)
What were the results of 100 years' war, and who won?
Kings reduced their reliance on feudal forces in favor of paid armies, foot-soldiers began to achieve parity or even an advantage over mounted knights, and despite the length of the war, it wasn't very bloody and ultimately had no champion.
Who was Charlemagne and why was he so important?
He established a substantial empire in France and Germany around 800 and helped restore church-based education.
A religious way of life characterized by the practice of renouncing worldly pursuits to fully devote one's self to spiritual work.
How did the office of the Pope change from the beginning to the later middle ages?
At first the pope was strictly a religious leader, but he became more of a political leader in the later middle ages.
During the middle ages, primary political and military power in Europe was_____.
wielded by the Roman Catholic church.
In medieval Europe, serfs differed from slaves in that _______.
serfs could not be bought or sold, and they had some rights of ownership over the land.
After the collapse of Charlemagne's empire, the pattern of political life in western Europe____.
was dominated by regional states with strong aristocrats.
Scholars in medieval universities and schools in western Europe ______.
trained students mainly in theology, medicine, and law.
The overwhelming significance of the crusades for western Europe was the _____.
expansion of cultural and economic contacts between western Europe and the Middle East.
All of the following were examples of the rising importance of trade in the late medieval European economy-
b)the Hanseatic League
c)international bankers and banking facilities
d) (FALSE ANSWER) the growth of professional armies.
Although western European society was not as tolerant of the merchants as were Muslim and Indian societies, _____.
weak governments allowed merchants to assert considerable power in semi-independent trading cities.
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