Biology: Cells GUHS

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Prokaryotic
A cell that lacks a nucleus and other membrane-bound organelles, with DNA organized into a single bacterial chromosome in the cytoplasm. No nucelus.
Eukaryotic
A cell in which the genetic material is enclosed within a nucleus, surrounded by a nuclear membrane (envelope) and other membrane-bound organelles like mitochondria, golgi bodies, endoplasmic reticulum, etc.
Homeostasis
A condition in which a cell or an organism maintains a stable internal environment.
Diffusion
A process by which molecules spread out from areas where there are many of them (high concentration) to areas where there are few (low concentration) down a concentration gradient without requiring energy - passive transport.
Osmosis
A special type of diffusion by with WATER molecules move across a membrane from areas where there are few.
EXocytosis
EX=exit: The process of surrounding a molecule with a membrane and pushing it out of the cell.
ENdocytosis
EN=enter: The process of surrounding a molecule with a membrane and bringing it into the cell.
Bacteria
A large group of one-celled organisms that sometimes cause disease but mostly are beneficial.
Chloroplast
An organelle in a plant cell that contains chlorophyll, a chemical that uses energy from the sunlight to make sugar (photosynthesis - light and dark reactions)
Mitochondria
Organelles that release energy by using oxygen to break down sugars. Site of aerobic cellular respiration (Krebs cycle and Electron transport Chain). The first step glycolysis occurs in the cytoplasm.
Organization, Growth, Reproduction, and Response
Common CHARACTERISTICS that all living things share.
Energy, Water, Living Space, and Waste Removal
Common NEEDS that all living things share.
Unicellular
A term used to describe an organism that is made up of a single cell. USUALLY live in watery places.
Multicellular
A term used to describe an organism that is made up of many cells.
Spontaneous Generation
The supposed developement of living organisms from non-living matter. Also called biogenesis.
Membrane Bound
Any structure in a cell that is enclosed by an EXTREMELY THIN layer of material, like mitochondria, nuclei, chlorplasts
Example of Prokaryotic cells
Eubacteria (normal environment), Archeabacteria (extreame environments), PRO=no! you are not this!
Example of Eukaryotic cells
Eu=You! You are an example or this, Plants, Animals, Fungus, Protists
Organelle
A structure in a cell that performs a particular function.
Animal Cell parts
What is this a picture of?
Plant Cell parts
What is this a picture of?
Golgi body
Membrane-bound organelle that is involved in packaging proteins and other macromolecules for transport within the cell or outside of the cell, packs in vesicles.
Chromosomes
DNA wrapped around proteins that contain genetic information.
The plans
The nucleus
Where the DNA is stored and transcribed. City Hall
The mitochondria
The Power Plant in a cell.
The Endoplasmic Reticulum
The Assembly Line in a cell.
Membrane Bound organelle involved in protein syntheis and modification (rough ER) or lipid synthesis and modification (smooth ER)
The Ribosomes
Protein Factories. The site of protein syntheis.
Cytoplasm
A thick, geletan material contained within the cell membrane. Most of the work of the cell is carried out through this.
Nucleus
The structure in a EUkaryotic cell that contains the genetic material a cell needs to reproduce and function.
True
True or False, Water can come and go as it pleases throughout the cell membrane?
True
True or false, if you were to draw a picture of diffusion, you would draw molecules in an area moving around to a new area where there are few?
The Cell Theory, number 1
All living things are made up of 1 or more molecules, is part of what theory? extra info: "Unicellular or Multicellular."
The Cell Theory number 2
Cells carry out the functions (jobs) needed to support life, is part of what theory? extra info: "All cells do WORK. They make PROTEIN."
The Cell Theory number 3
What theory is this? All cells come ONLY from other LIVING cells. extra info: "It takes a cell to make a cell."
Carbohydrates
A type of molecule made up of subunits of sugars (monosaccarides) and used for energy, structure, and cell recognization.
Proteins
One of many types of molecules made up of chains and amino acid subunits. This controls the chemical activity of a cell and support growth and repair, hair, nails, and ENZYMES. You can find them in animal meat, eggs, dairy and beans.
Lipids
A type of molecule made up of subunits of fatty acids. They are found in the fats, oils, and waxes used for structure and to store energy. They do not dissolve in water.
Phospholipids are a main component of cell membranes.
Equilibrium
After Diffusion when all molecules are spread out, a balance is reached which is called.....
Salt
Needed to maintain electrical balance in the body. Heartbeat, blood pressure, and muscle movement are all affected by this. Affects enzyme activity.
Concentration
The number of particles of a substance in a given volume (space). It is used to describe how WEAK or how STRONG a SOLUTION is.
Plasma Cell Membrane
The outer boundary of the cell that controls what enters and leaves the cell. It has TWO LAYERS:one faces the outside environment and the other faces the inside of the cell (phospholipid bilayer).
Active Transport
Using Energy to move molecules into or out of the cell. Required when moving large molecules or those that move up the concentration gradient, from low concentration to high concentration - uphill.
Passive Transport
A movement of molecules without the use of energy. Involves osmosis and diffusion. Moves materials down gradient - down hill.
Nucleic Acid
Which large molecule (macromolecule) contains instructions for maintenance, growth, and repair of cells?
cell membrane
Controls what enters or leaves the cell
cell wall
outer layer of plant cells, made of cellulose. Also present in fungi (chitan) or some bacteria (peptidoglycan)
golgi body
packages materiasl in vesicles for transport.
Membrane-bound.
ribosome
site of protein synthesis
cytoskeleton
gives animal cells structure: microtubules
endoplasmic reticulum
transports and modifies proteins throughout the cell
chloroplast
makes energy: glucose and makes O2 from sunlight, CO2 and H2O
mitochondria
breaks down food to produce cellular energy ATP
nucleus
stores genetic information
nucleolus
site of ribosomal RNA synthesis within the nucleus
vacuole
stores nutrients, waste, and water
cellulose
major components of plant cell walls. It is a carbohydrate indigestible by human = fiber
lysosome
site of digestion of materials within the cell. Contains really strong enzymes.
chromatin
mass of DNA and associated proteins. Relaxed chromosomes
centrioles
hollow tube-like structures that assist during cell reproduction in animal cells only.
cytoplasm
fluid found within all cells
vesicle
sac that transports materials though the cell or to the cell membrane
prokaryote
only bacteria; lacks a nucleus
eukaryote
all other cells; contains a nucleus
4 things all cells have
cell membrane, ribosomes, DNA, cytoplasm
3 things plant cells have
cell wall, large central vacuole, chloroplasts
Enzymes
Proteins, Biological Catalysts. Are not consumed in reactions but speed them up by lowering the activiation energy.