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South Carolina's assault o Fort Sumter
Unified the North and made it determined to preserve the Union by military force
Lincoln's first call for troops to suppress teh rebellion
Caused four more Upper South states to secede and join the Confederacy
Lincoln's careful use of moral suasion, politics, and military force
Kept the Border States in the Union
The large Northern advantage in human resources
Enabled Northern generals to wear down Southern armies, even at the cost of many lives
The North's naval blockade and industrial superiority
Eventually gave the Union a crucial economic advantage over the mostly agricultural South
The British aristocracy's sympathy with the South
Led the British government toward actions that aided the Confederacy and angered the Union
American minister C. F. Adams's diplomacy
Deterred the British from recognizing and aiding the Confederacy
Brithis expansion of cotton growing in colonial Egypt and India
Enabled textile mills to keep functioning despite the Civil War and expanded Britain's share of global markets
The class biased unfairness of the Civil War draft
Led to riots by underprivileged Northern whites, especially Irish Americans
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