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-cartilage fish (sharks, skates, rays, ratfish)
-First group to evolve jaws, modified gill supports; cartilaginous skeleton (except for jaws/teeth)
-(frogs/toads, salamanders, caecilians)
-First tetrapods (evolved from fish); first terrestrial vertebrates; undergo metamorphosis; reproduce in water in most; skin requires moist habitat
-(turtles, squamates (lizards and snakes), crocodilians, dinosaurs, birds)
-First tetrapod group to be free from water; have keratinized scales, amniotic egg, modified kidneys→uric acid
-learning to become "YOUR" species (Chester the Molester); must occur within critical period
Conditional/ Associative learning
-Learning in response to an outside stimulus (positive/negative/neutral)
-pairing of a neutral stimulus with specific behavior (Pavlov's dogs receiving a steak at the sounds of a bell, causing them to salivate. Eventually, the sound of a bell alone makes the dogs salivate)
-egg and sperm meet form a zygote
-Pro= genetic diversity
-Cons= need a mate; wasted males
-No fusion of egg and sperm
- Pros= no mate needed, no wasted mates
- Cons= no genetic diversity
-no nucleus, no organelle, single celled (bacteria); binary fission for reproduction, singular circular chromosome; found in every type of environment
-multi-celled; mitosis for reproduction, membrane bound organelles including nucleus, multiple elongated chromosomes.
hallmark characters of vertebrates
1) internal skeleton including vertebral column—endoskeleton
2) anterior skull—protects brain
3) coelomates—organs anchored in coelom
4) well-developed closed circulatory system with dorsal heart
low growing shrubs and trees with evergreen leaves, many small rodents and birds, winters are cold and wet and summers are warm and dry
thorn forest/tropical savanna
spiny shrubs, grazing mammals, reptiles and insects, 25-35 degrees C, little rain in winter
tropical deciduous forest
many trees, mammals, reptiles, amphibians and insects, 20-60 degrees C, total rain=about 160 cm
tropical evergreen forest
up to 500 species of trees per square km, mammals, birds, amphibians, anthropods, warm and rainy--about 20 degrees C all year, rainfall exceeds 250 cm
temperate evergreen forest
coniferous trees, moose, hares, rodents, -25-15 degrees C, winters are mild and wet, summers are cool and dry
temperate deciduous forest
deciduous trees and shrubs, migrant birds, insects, amphibians, -10-25 degrees C, about 81 cm of rain/year
perennial grasses and forbs--corn and wheat, large grazing mammals, 0-25 degrees C, snow in winter, rain in summer
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