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52 terms

Mside Bio Final

STUDY
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Chondrichthyes
-cartilage fish (sharks, skates, rays, ratfish)
-First group to evolve jaws, modified gill supports; cartilaginous skeleton (except for jaws/teeth)
Ray-finned fishes
-Have bony rays to support fins; most diverse; bony skeleton
Coelocanths
-Primitive fish with jointed fins; group from which tetrapods evolved
Lungfishes
Have both lungs and gills; closest living relative of tetrapods
Amphibians
-(frogs/toads, salamanders, caecilians)
-First tetrapods (evolved from fish); first terrestrial vertebrates; undergo metamorphosis; reproduce in water in most; skin requires moist habitat
Reptiles
-(turtles, squamates (lizards and snakes), crocodilians, dinosaurs, birds)
-First tetrapod group to be free from water; have keratinized scales, amniotic egg, modified kidneys→uric acid
Mammals
-Have amniotic sac—supports embryo
-Have mammary glands and hair
Protherians (mammals)
lay eggs outside body
Marsupials (mammals)
internal amnion
Eutherians (placental mammals)
humans
Ecology
study of interactions between organisms and their environment
population
same species in given area at given time
community
different species... (all populations)
ecosystem
community + ABIOTIC factors = nonliving factors (soil, water, air, climate, etc)
biosphere
thin layer surrounding globe
Biotic factors
living
abiotic factors
non-living
Proximate cause
immediate physical cause
Ultimate cause
evolutionary cause (how the behavior relates to fitness/promotes fitness)
Habituation
ceasing to respond to a stimulus (hyphae); saves energy
Imprinting
-learning to become "YOUR" species (Chester the Molester); must occur within critical period
Conditional/ Associative learning
-Learning in response to an outside stimulus (positive/negative/neutral)
Classical conditioning
-pairing of a neutral stimulus with specific behavior (Pavlov's dogs receiving a steak at the sounds of a bell, causing them to salivate. Eventually, the sound of a bell alone makes the dogs salivate)
Operant conditioning
-modification of voluntary behavior using reward(+)/punishment(-)
Evolution
-change in genetics of a population over time
Sexual Reproduction
-egg and sperm meet form a zygote
-Pro= genetic diversity
-Cons= need a mate; wasted males
Asexual Reproduction
-No fusion of egg and sperm
- Pros= no mate needed, no wasted mates
- Cons= no genetic diversity
Scientific method
observation, question, hypothesis(ses), experiment (test), conclusion
Prokaryotes
-no nucleus, no organelle, single celled (bacteria); binary fission for reproduction, singular circular chromosome; found in every type of environment
Eukaryote
-multi-celled; mitosis for reproduction, membrane bound organelles including nucleus, multiple elongated chromosomes.
Autotroph
-gaining food via photosynthesis
Heterotroph
-feeding off of other organisms
hallmark characters of vertebrates
1) internal skeleton including vertebral column—endoskeleton
2) anterior skull—protects brain
3) coelomates—organs anchored in coelom
4) well-developed closed circulatory system with dorsal heart
chordates
dorsal nerve cord
chordates
post anal tail
chordates
pharyngeal gill slits
chordates
notochord (vertebral discs in spine)
chordates
endostyle
vertebrates
internal skeleton
vertebrates
anterior skull
vertebrates
coelomate
vertebrates
closed circ system with dorsal heart
cold desert
low growing shrubs, seed eating birds, -2-26 degrees C, 15-26 cm of precip/year
chaparral
low growing shrubs and trees with evergreen leaves, many small rodents and birds, winters are cold and wet and summers are warm and dry
thorn forest/tropical savanna
spiny shrubs, grazing mammals, reptiles and insects, 25-35 degrees C, little rain in winter
tropical deciduous forest
many trees, mammals, reptiles, amphibians and insects, 20-60 degrees C, total rain=about 160 cm
tropical evergreen forest
up to 500 species of trees per square km, mammals, birds, amphibians, anthropods, warm and rainy--about 20 degrees C all year, rainfall exceeds 250 cm
tundra
low growing plants, birds and insects (summer), -25-5 degrees C, low precip
temperate evergreen forest
coniferous trees, moose, hares, rodents, -25-15 degrees C, winters are mild and wet, summers are cool and dry
temperate deciduous forest
deciduous trees and shrubs, migrant birds, insects, amphibians, -10-25 degrees C, about 81 cm of rain/year
temperate grasslands
perennial grasses and forbs--corn and wheat, large grazing mammals, 0-25 degrees C, snow in winter, rain in summer
hot desert
taproots, waxy covered leaves, reptiles, rodents, insects, 25-38 degrees C