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How do you determine the magnification of a microscope and relate it to the size of the field of view?
The total magnification is the product of the magnifications of the eyepiece and objective lenses
How do you stain a microscope slide?
Stain one end of the wetmount and place a paper towel on the other end. The paper towel will act as a magnet for the stain
How are microscopic things measured?
nanometers
What happens to the image as it passes through the microscope?
Everything is backwards; Up is down, left is right etc.
what is a variable & how do you identify a problem?
Somthing that may be changed or manipulated during an experiment.
What is a control?
When experimenting, it is the subject that is left unchanged.
What are atoms made up of?
Protons, neutrons, and electrons
What are elements made up of?
Elements are the simplest possible chemical structures, can't be broken down. made up of atoms that all have same atomic number
What are compounds made up of?
Compounds are made up of elements
What are the different types of Chemical bonds?
Ionic, Covalent, and polar covalent.
What is an ionic bond?
Complete transfer of electrons.
What is a covalent bond?
Covalent bonds involve a complete sharing of electrons and occurrs most commonly between atoms that have partially filled outer shells or energy levels
What is a polar covalent bond?
the atoms share electrons but the electrons spend more of their time around on atom versus the others in the compound.
What are the different types of Chemical Reactions?
Combusion, Synthesis, Single Displacement, Double Displacement, Acid-Base, and Decomposition
What is Combustion?
A reaction between oxygen and another compound
What is Synthesis?
when two or more simple compounds combine to form a more complicated one
What is Decomposition?
Opposite of Synthesis, the breaking down of compounds
What is Single Displacement?
when one element trades places with another element in a compound
What is Double Displacement?
When two elements trade places with other elements in a compound
What is pH and how is it important to living things?
A measure of how acidic or basic a solution is. It is important becuase it affects how enzymes function as they can only work at specific pH depending upon the enzyme
What are the organic compounds?
Carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids
What is the enzyme/substrate complex?
An enzyme-substrate complex uses the reactants(substrates) and the enzyme. The enzyme is like a catalyst that reduces the required activation energy and speeds up the chemical reaction.
What is the cell theory?
1. All cells come from other cells. 2. all cells are basic units of structures and are the functions of all living things. 3. All living things are made up of cells.
What is the difference between plant and animal cells?
plant cells have a cell wall, plants cells ONLY have chloroplasts, BOTH have mitochondria, animal cells have centrioles, plant cells have one central vacuole.
What are the major organelles of a plant cell?
Chloroplasts(plants), endoplasmic reticulum(both), golgi apparatus (both) mitochondrion (both) vacuole (both) nucleus (both)
What is the function of a chloroplast?
Found in plants; traps light energy.
what is the function of the endoplasmic reticulum?
moves substances around in the cell
what is the purpose of the golgi apparatus?
To store, package, inspect, protein from the Rough ER
what is the function of the mitochondria?
to produce ATP
What is the purpose of the vacuole?
Removing unwanted structural debris and Maintaining an acidic internal pH.
What is the purpose of the nucleus?
Keeps DNA separated from the cytoplasm and it is the brain of the cell
What is the membrane structure?
A membrane is a boundary between out and in, acts as a bouncer
What is diffusion?
the passive movement of molecules down a chemical (concentration) gradient from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration
What is osmosis?
The diffusion of water
What is facilitated diffusion?
a process in which substances move down their concentration gradient across the cell membrane with the assistance of carrier proteins.
What is active transport?
The transport of ions, nutrients or other molecules into a cell against a concentration gradient and requires the expenditure of energy.
What is the difference between endocytosis and exocytosis?
Endocytosis- process of taking material into the cell by means of infoldings in the cell membrane
Exocytosis- The membrane of the vacuole surrounding the material fuses within the cell membrane, forcing the contents out of the cell
What is the difference between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells?
Prokaryotic has no nucleus - Eukaryotic has a nucleus
What is the formula for photosynthesis?
6CO2 + 6H20 + sun → C6H12O6 + 6O2
What is the roll of chlorophyll in photosynthesis?
Chlorophyll is the molecule that absorbs sunlight and uses its energy to "synthesise" carbohydrates from CO2 and H2O.
What is the roll of light in photosynthesis?
The light acts as the activation energy for the reaction
What is the roll of ATP in photosynthesis?
the energy received from the sun is stored in the form of ATP, so ATP is simply an energy carrier
What are the final products of the light reactions in photosynthesis?
ATP and NADPH
What are the major events of the light reactions in photosynthesis?
1. Electrons flow to NADP. 2. Split Water. 3. Pump protons (hydrogen) 4. ATP production
What are the products of the calvin cycle?
Glucose
What are the major events of the calvin cycle?
Rubisco attaches Carbon to RuBp; NADPH and ATP convert PGA to G3P; 3 ATP are used to regenerate RuBP
What is photorespiration and when does it occur?
The process that consumes oxygen and produces carbon dioxide; Occurs on hot days with stomata closed
Wht is the leaf structure?
Upper & lower epedermis and cuticle, contains xylem and pholem. Xylem has hard walls that transport nutrients, pholem has soft walls that transport organic nutrients
What is the function of the stomates in a leaf?
Gas exchange. Oxygen and water vapor are secreted while carbon dioxide is absorbed
What is transpiration?
when plants release water vapor from their leaves.
What is the formula for respiration?
O2 + glucose --> ATP energy & CO2 & water
What is the role of mitochondria in respiration?
Conversion of potential energy into ATP
What is cellular respiration?
process that releases energy by breaking down glucose and other food molecules in the presence of oxygen
What is the role of ATP in respiration?
Provides energy for all cellular activities
What are the steps of respiration?
Glycoysis; Krebs Cycle; Electron transport chain
What are the end products of Glycolysis?
Pyruvate
What are the end products of the Krebs Cycle?
Carbon dioxide, NADH, ATP, and FADH2
What are the end products of the Electron Transport Chain?
ATP and Water
What is the difference between aerobic and anaerobic respiration?
. The difference between and aerobic process and an anaerobic process are that an aerobic process needs oxygen to take place while anaerobic processes do not.
What is the result of aerobic respiration?
energy is realeased
what is the result of anaerobic respiration?
To produce ATP
What is the relationship between photosynthesis and respiration?
Photosynthesis is opposite of cellular respiration- the reactions of one cellular respiration the product of the other
What is the structure of DNA?
double helix
What happens during DNA replication?
the DNA molecule separates into two strands, then produces two new complementary strands following the rules of base pairing. Each strand of the double helix of DNA serves as a template, or model, for the new strand.
When does DNA replication occur?
S phase of interphase.
Where does DNA replication occur?
nucleus
What are the stages of the cell cycle?
Interphase (G1, S [dna replication] G2) Prophase, Metaphase, Anaphase, Telophase
What happens during Prophase?
Chromatin condenses into tightly coiled chromosomes
What happens during metaphase?
chromosomes line up in the middle of the cell
What happens during Anaphase?
Chromosomes separate and are pulled by the spindle apparatuses to the spindle apparatuses
What happens during Telophase?
chromosomes gather at opposite ends of the cell and lose their distince shapes, two nuclear envelopes form
What is the end result of Mitosis?
2 identical daughter cells
What is Transcription?
The process of producing mRNA
What is mRNA processing?
the process of making a messenger RNA mature
What is translation?
Transfer of genetic information form RNA into a protein
What is the structure of RNA?
RNA is made from 1 strand of DNA; has only 1 strand; has Adenine, uracil, cytosine, and guanine
What are the types of RNA?
Messenger RNA, Transfer RNA, Ribosomal RNA
What is the function of Messenger RNA?
Carries information specifying amino acid sequences of proteins from DNA to ribosomes.
What is the function of Transfer RNA?
Serves as adapter molecule in protein synthesis; translates mRNA codons into amino acids.
What is the function of Ribosomal RNA?
Plays catalytic (ribozyme) roles and structural roles in ribosomes.
What is protein structure?
primary 1
*order of amino acids in polypeptide chain.
*determines by DNA
*no shape
How does a gene produce a trait?
a trait is a protein. when a gene is DNA and DNA produces rna, then the rna goes to the ribosomes to produce a protein