what is the function of the endoplasmic reticulum?
moves substances around in the cell
what is the purpose of the golgi apparatus?
To store, package, inspect, protein from the Rough ER
what is the function of the mitochondria?
to produce ATP
What is the purpose of the vacuole?
Removing unwanted structural debris and Maintaining an acidic internal pH.
What is the purpose of the nucleus?
Keeps DNA separated from the cytoplasm and it is the brain of the cell
What is the membrane structure?
A membrane is a boundary between out and in, acts as a bouncer
What is diffusion?
the passive movement of molecules down a chemical (concentration) gradient from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration
What is osmosis?
The diffusion of water
What is facilitated diffusion?
a process in which substances move down their concentration gradient across the cell membrane with the assistance of carrier proteins.
What is active transport?
The transport of ions, nutrients or other molecules into a cell against a concentration gradient and requires the expenditure of energy.
What is the difference between endocytosis and exocytosis?
Endocytosis- process of taking material into the cell by means of infoldings in the cell membrane Exocytosis- The membrane of the vacuole surrounding the material fuses within the cell membrane, forcing the contents out of the cell
What is the difference between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells?
Prokaryotic has no nucleus - Eukaryotic has a nucleus
What is the formula for photosynthesis?
6CO2 + 6H20 + sun → C6H12O6 + 6O2
What is the roll of chlorophyll in photosynthesis?
Chlorophyll is the molecule that absorbs sunlight and uses its energy to "synthesise" carbohydrates from CO2 and H2O.
What is the roll of light in photosynthesis?
The light acts as the activation energy for the reaction
What is the roll of ATP in photosynthesis?
the energy received from the sun is stored in the form of ATP, so ATP is simply an energy carrier
What are the final products of the light reactions in photosynthesis?
ATP and NADPH
What are the major events of the light reactions in photosynthesis?
1. Electrons flow to NADP. 2. Split Water. 3. Pump protons (hydrogen) 4. ATP production
What are the products of the calvin cycle?
What are the major events of the calvin cycle?
Rubisco attaches Carbon to RuBp; NADPH and ATP convert PGA to G3P; 3 ATP are used to regenerate RuBP
What is photorespiration and when does it occur?
The process that consumes oxygen and produces carbon dioxide; Occurs on hot days with stomata closed
Wht is the leaf structure?
Upper & lower epedermis and cuticle, contains xylem and pholem. Xylem has hard walls that transport nutrients, pholem has soft walls that transport organic nutrients
What is the function of the stomates in a leaf?
Gas exchange. Oxygen and water vapor are secreted while carbon dioxide is absorbed
What is transpiration?
when plants release water vapor from their leaves.
What is the formula for respiration?
O2 + glucose --> ATP energy & CO2 & water
What is the role of mitochondria in respiration?
Conversion of potential energy into ATP
What is cellular respiration?
process that releases energy by breaking down glucose and other food molecules in the presence of oxygen
What is the role of ATP in respiration?
Provides energy for all cellular activities
What are the steps of respiration?
Glycoysis; Krebs Cycle; Electron transport chain
What are the end products of Glycolysis?
What are the end products of the Krebs Cycle?
Carbon dioxide, NADH, ATP, and FADH2
What are the end products of the Electron Transport Chain?
ATP and Water
What is the difference between aerobic and anaerobic respiration?
. The difference between and aerobic process and an anaerobic process are that an aerobic process needs oxygen to take place while anaerobic processes do not.
What is the result of aerobic respiration?
energy is realeased
what is the result of anaerobic respiration?
To produce ATP
What is the relationship between photosynthesis and respiration?
Photosynthesis is opposite of cellular respiration- the reactions of one cellular respiration the product of the other
What is the structure of DNA?
What happens during DNA replication?
the DNA molecule separates into two strands, then produces two new complementary strands following the rules of base pairing. Each strand of the double helix of DNA serves as a template, or model, for the new strand.
When does DNA replication occur?
S phase of interphase.
Where does DNA replication occur?
What are the stages of the cell cycle?
Interphase (G1, S [dna replication] G2) Prophase, Metaphase, Anaphase, Telophase
What happens during Prophase?
Chromatin condenses into tightly coiled chromosomes
What happens during metaphase?
chromosomes line up in the middle of the cell
What happens during Anaphase?
Chromosomes separate and are pulled by the spindle apparatuses to the spindle apparatuses
What happens during Telophase?
chromosomes gather at opposite ends of the cell and lose their distince shapes, two nuclear envelopes form
What is the end result of Mitosis?
2 identical daughter cells
What is Transcription?
The process of producing mRNA
What is mRNA processing?
the process of making a messenger RNA mature
What is translation?
Transfer of genetic information form RNA into a protein
What is the structure of RNA?
RNA is made from 1 strand of DNA; has only 1 strand; has Adenine, uracil, cytosine, and guanine
What are the types of RNA?
Messenger RNA, Transfer RNA, Ribosomal RNA
What is the function of Messenger RNA?
Carries information specifying amino acid sequences of proteins from DNA to ribosomes.
What is the function of Transfer RNA?
Serves as adapter molecule in protein synthesis; translates mRNA codons into amino acids.
What is the function of Ribosomal RNA?
Plays catalytic (ribozyme) roles and structural roles in ribosomes.
What is protein structure?
primary 1 *order of amino acids in polypeptide chain. *determines by DNA *no shape
How does a gene produce a trait?
a trait is a protein. when a gene is DNA and DNA produces rna, then the rna goes to the ribosomes to produce a protein