Biology: Mendelian Genetics GUHS
Father of genetics, studied pea plants.
Genetically determined variant of a characteristic.
transmission of characteristics from parents to offspring.
pollination within the same plant
pollination between different plants
A trait that will always appear if that allele is present.
A trait that is masked by a dominant trait.
true breeding parents
offspring (filial) of P generation parents
Is when both alleles of a pair are alike
is when two alleles are different
one of the alternative forms of a gene that governs a characteristic, such as hair color
A cross in which one characteristic is tracked
Ex. Br x Br: genotypes: 1:2:1, phenotypes: 3:1
A cross in which two characteristics are tracked
BrHr x BrHr
Graphical method to aid biologists in predicting the probable distribution of inherited traits in the offspring. Developed by Reginald Punnett.
an organism's appearance or other characteristic that results from the organism's genotyp
the combination of genes for one or more specific traits.
law of segregation
Its a separation in the homologous Chromosomes so that there is a pair present in each Gamete
law of independent assortment
states that Chromosomes separate independently of one another during the formation of gametes
Crossing an organism with an unknown genotype / with a organism with a known genotype usually a homozygous recessive.
describes organisms or genotypes that are homozygous for a specific trait that always produce offspring that have the same phenotype for that trait
one allele is completely dominant
trait is intermediate between the phenotype of the two parents. Example: Red and White produce Pink.
possible future event will occur in any given event. Decimal, percentage, or a fraction
Scientific study of heredity
A haploid egg or sperm cell; unite during sexual reproduction to produce a diploid zygote.
A discrete unit of hereditary information consisting of a specific nucleotide sequence in DNA (or RNA, in some viruses).
The genetic makeup of an organism.
Diagram showing the relative locations of each known gene ona particular chromosome
The union of haploid gametes to produce a diploid zygote.
Term used to describe organisms that produce offspring identical to themselves if allowed to self-pollinate
Specific characteristics that varies from one individual to another
(1) Offspring of two parents that differ in one or more inheritable characteristics. (2) Offspring of two different varieties or of two different species.
An alternative form of a gene.
Separation of alleles during gamete formation
Likelikhood that a particular event will occur
The checkerboard diagram used for analysis of allele segregation.
The physical and physiological traits of an organism.
A type of inheritance in which F1 hybrids have an appearance that is intermediate between the phenotypes of the parental varieties.
A phenotypic situation in which both alleles are expressed in the heterozygote.
Three or more alleles of the same gene
Traits controlled by two or more genes
Term used to refer to chromosomes that each have a corresponding chromosome from the opposite-sex parent
Term used to refer to a cell that contains both sets of homologous chromosomes
Structure containing 4 chromatids that forms during meiosis
Process by which the number of chromosomes per cell is cut in half through the separation of homologous chromosomes in a diploid cell
Term used to refer to a cell that contains only a single set of chromosomes and therefore only a single set of genes.
Process in which homologous chromosomes exchange portions of their chromatids during meiosis
Passing of traits from parents to offspring
child, baby, new organism born from parent
sex cells like sperm and egg with half the number of chromosomes
sex cells that have been fertilized resulting in a cell with a full set of chromosomes. Our first cell.
Offspring developed from parents with different forms of a trait
different forms of forms of a gene, each gene has two alleles: one from MOM and one from DAD.
trait that is superior over recessive determining the physical appearance
Inferior trait that is covered up by the dominant trait
Two identical alleles for a trait
Two different alleles for a trait
Comparing only one trait of an offspring from two parents
Comparing two traits of an offspring from two parents